European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 221, Issue 3–4, pp 221–225 | Cite as

Occurrence of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters in coffee

  • Marek Doležal
  • Marta Chaloupská
  • Veronika Divinová
  • Blanka Svejkovská
  • Jan Velišek
Original Paper

Abstract

Fifteen coffee samples comprising green, roasted, decaffeinated and instant coffees were analysed for their content of free and bound 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD). Green coffees contained only traces of the free 3-MCPD. 3-MCPD in roasted coffees was found at the level of 10.1–18.5 µg/kg. The highest 3-MCPD level of 18.5 µg/kg was found in one instant coffee sample and in coffees with very long time application during roasting. The final colour of the roasted coffee beans was directly linked to the 3-MCPD formed, the darker beans having the greatest concentration, and arabica coffees contained lower 3-MCPD levels than robusta coffees. The level of bound 3-MCPD varied between 6 µg/kg (soluble coffees) and 390 µg/kg (decaffeinated coffee) and exceeded the free 3-MCPD level 8–33 times. Arabica coffees contained higher levels of the bound 3-MCPD than robusta coffees. The recognised precursors of 3-MCPD (salt, glycerol, lipids) were also determined and their influence on the formation of the free and bound 3-MCPD was discussed.

Keywords

3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol 3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol esters Coffee Principal components analysis 

References

  1. 1.
    Davídek J, Velišek J, Kubelka V, Janíček G (1982) Recent developments in food analysis. In: Baltes W, Czedik-Eysenberg Pb Pfannhauser W (eds) Proc Euro Food Chem I, Vienna, Austria, 17–20 February, 1981. Weinheim, Deerfield Beach, FL, pp 322–325Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Velišek J, Doležal M, Crews C, Dvořák T (2002) Czech J Food Sci 20:161–170Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    European Commission Regulation (EC) No 466/2001. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of European Communities L77/1 of 16 March 2001Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crews C, Brereton P, Davies A (2001) Food Addit Contam 18:271–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crews C, Hough P, Brereton P, Harvey D, Macarthur R, Matthews W (2002) Food Addit Contam 19:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamlet CG, Jayaratne SM, Matthews W (2002) Food Addit Contam 19:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hamlet CG, Sadd PA, Crews C, Velišek J, Baxter DE (2002) Food Addit Contam 19:619–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Breitling-Utzmann CM, Köbler H, Herbolzheimer D, Maier A (2003) Dtsch Lebensm-Rdsch 99:280–285Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Svejkovská B, Novotný O, Divinová V, Réblová Z, Doležal M, Velišek J (2004) Czech J Food Sci 22:in pressGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    Kraft R, Brachwitz H, Etzold G, Langen P, Zopfl HJ (1979) J Prakt Chem 321:769–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Divinová V, Svejkovská B, Doležal M, Velišek J (2004) Czech J Food Sci 22:182Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Divinová V, Svejkovská B, Novotný O, Velišek J (2004) Proceedings of Chemical Reactions in Foods V, Prague, Czech Republic, 29 September–1 October 2004. Czech J Food Sci 22:267–271, Special IssueGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Belitz H-D, Grosch W, Schieberle P (2004) Food chemistry, 3rd revised ed. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    European Commission (2001) Scientific Committee on Food, SCF/CS/CNTM/OTH/17 Final, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol updating the SCF opinion of 1994, adopted on 30 May 2001; http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out91_en.pdf/
  16. 16.
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Fifty-seventh Meeting Rome, 5–14 June 2001. Summary and Conclusions; http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfp/economic/ESN/Jecfa/57corr.pdf/
  17. 17.
    Calta P, Velišek J, Doležal M, Hasnip S, Crews C, Réblová Z (2004) Eur Food Res Technol 218:501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alcázar A, Fernández-Cáceres PL, Martín MJ, Pablos F, Gonzáles AG (2003) Talanta 61:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marek Doležal
    • 1
  • Marta Chaloupská
    • 1
  • Veronika Divinová
    • 1
  • Blanka Svejkovská
    • 1
  • Jan Velišek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Chemistry and AnalysisInstitute of Chemical TechnologyPrague 6Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations