European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 221, Issue 3–4, pp 221–225 | Cite as

Occurrence of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters in coffee

  • Marek Doležal
  • Marta Chaloupská
  • Veronika Divinová
  • Blanka Svejkovská
  • Jan Velišek
Original Paper


Fifteen coffee samples comprising green, roasted, decaffeinated and instant coffees were analysed for their content of free and bound 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD). Green coffees contained only traces of the free 3-MCPD. 3-MCPD in roasted coffees was found at the level of 10.1–18.5 µg/kg. The highest 3-MCPD level of 18.5 µg/kg was found in one instant coffee sample and in coffees with very long time application during roasting. The final colour of the roasted coffee beans was directly linked to the 3-MCPD formed, the darker beans having the greatest concentration, and arabica coffees contained lower 3-MCPD levels than robusta coffees. The level of bound 3-MCPD varied between 6 µg/kg (soluble coffees) and 390 µg/kg (decaffeinated coffee) and exceeded the free 3-MCPD level 8–33 times. Arabica coffees contained higher levels of the bound 3-MCPD than robusta coffees. The recognised precursors of 3-MCPD (salt, glycerol, lipids) were also determined and their influence on the formation of the free and bound 3-MCPD was discussed.


3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol 3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol esters Coffee Principal components analysis 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marek Doležal
    • 1
  • Marta Chaloupská
    • 1
  • Veronika Divinová
    • 1
  • Blanka Svejkovská
    • 1
  • Jan Velišek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Chemistry and AnalysisInstitute of Chemical TechnologyPrague 6Czech Republic

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