Integrated graphene quantum dot decorated functionalized nanosheet biosensor for mycotoxin detection

Abstract

Decoration of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets serves as an active electrode material which enhances the electrochemical performance of the analyte detection system. Herein, ionic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets decorated with GQD material are used to construct an electrochemical biosensor for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection. An antibody of AFB1 (aAFB1) was immobilized on the electrophoretically deposited MoS2@GQDs film on the indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass surface using a crosslinker for the fabrication of the biosensor. The immunosensing study investigated by the electrochemical method revealed a signal response in the range of 0.1 to 3.0 ng/mL AFB1 concentration with a detection limit of 0.09 ng/mL. Also, electrochemical parameters such as diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous electron transfer (HET) were calculated and found to be 1.67 × 10−5 cm2/s and 2 × 10−5 cm/s, respectively. The effective conjugation of MoS2@GQDs that provides abundant exposed edge sites, large surface area, improved electrical conductivity, and electrocatalytic activity has led to an excellent biosensing performance with enhanced electrochemical parameters. Validation of the fabricated immunosensor was performed in a spiked maize sample, and a good percentage of recoveries within an acceptable range were obtained (80.2 to 98.3%).

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Acknowledgments

We thank Director, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India, for providing facilities. We sincerely thank Prof. B.D. Malhotra and Dr. R.K. Kotnala for interesting discussions. H.B. thanks Dr. Chandan Singh, Dr. Shipra Solanki, and Dr. Razi Ahmad for suggestions.

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Correspondence to Gajjala Sumana.

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Bhardwaj, H., Marquette, C.A., Dutta, P. et al. Integrated graphene quantum dot decorated functionalized nanosheet biosensor for mycotoxin detection. Anal Bioanal Chem 412, 7029–7041 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-02840-0

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Keywords

  • Molybdenum disulfide
  • Graphene quantum dots
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • Immunosensor
  • Aflatoxin B1