With recently legislated maximum levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in white and brown rice in Canada, the regulatory bodies are evaluating the need for regulation of As levels in infant food products. Rice is a major part of infants’ diet, and therefore, the presence of As in this staple food causes concerns. So far, the scientific community was lacking suitable certified reference material (CRM) which could be used to assess the accuracy of developed analytical methods for As speciation in infants’ food products. As a result, we have developed BARI-1, a baby cereal coarse rice flour reference material which was certified for total arsenic (0.248 ± 0.018 mg kg−1), cadmium (0.0134 ± 0.0014 mg kg−1), mercury (0.0026 ± 0.0003 mg kg−1), lead (0.0064 ± 0.0016 mg kg−1), inorganic As (0.113 ± 0.016 mg kg−1) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) (0.115 ± 0.010 mg kg−1), and reference value for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) (0.0045 ± 0.0008 mg kg−1) was reported. We also observed trace amounts of an unknown As compound, with chromatographic retention time close to DMA. Participating laboratories were allowed to use their in-house-validated extraction and/or digestion methods, and the detection of total metals was done by ICP-MS whereas HPLC-ICP-MS was used for As speciation. Despite the diversity in sample preparation and quantitation methods, reported values were in good agreement. For iAs measurement, the comparison between hydride generation ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS found iAs overestimation with the former method, possibly due to interference from DMA. The certification was accomplished with a CRM rapid response approach in collaborative, focused effort completing the CRM development in few months instead of the typical multiyear project. This approach allowed to respond to measurement needs in a timely fashion.
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The contributions of Ovi Mihai, Enea Pagliano, Kelly LeBlanc, Indumathi Pihillagawa Gedara and Marie-Pier Thibeault (NRC); Stephen D. Springer, Mitchell W. Kiriluk, Sage Presster, Raquel Asencio, Fiona M. Bellows and Jaqueline M. Aitken (Brooks Applied Labs); and Thippaya Junee Fortune (Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research) are acknowledged.
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Gajdosechova, Z., Grinberg, P., Nadeau, K. et al. CRM rapid response approach for the certification of arsenic species and toxic trace elements in baby cereal coarse rice flour certified reference material BARI-1. Anal Bioanal Chem 412, 4363–4373 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-02673-x
- Baby cereal rice flour certified reference material
- Toxic metals
- Arsenic speciation
- Isotope dilution
- Quality assurance