Salivary diagnostics on paper microfluidic devices and their use as wearable sensors for glucose monitoring
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Microfluidic paper-based devices (μPADs) and wearable devices have been highly studied to be used as diagnostic tools due to their advantages such as simplicity and ability to provide instrument-free fast results. Diseases such as periodontitis and diabetes mellitus can potentially be detected through these devices by the detection of important biomarkers. This study describes the development of μPADs through craft cutter printing for glucose and nitrite salivary diagnostics. In addition, the use of μPADs integrated into a mouthguard as a wearable sensor for glucose monitoring is also presented. μPADs were designed to contain two detection zones for glucose and nitrite assays and a sampling zone interconnected by microfluidic channels. Initially, the analytical performance of the proposed μPADs was investigated and it provided linear behavior (r2 ≥ 0.994) in the concentration ranges between 0 to 2.0 mmol L−1 and 0 to 400 μmol L−1 for glucose and nitrite, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection achieved for glucose and nitrite were 27 μmol L−1 and 7 μmol L−1, respectively. Human saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients previously diagnosed with periodontitis or diabetes and then analyzed on the proposed μPADs. The results found using μPADs revealed higher glucose concentration values in saliva collected from patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and greater nitrite concentrations in saliva collected from patients diagnosed with periodontitis, as expected. The results obtained on μPADs did not differ statistically from those measured by spectrophotometry. With the aim of developing paper-based wearable sensors, μPADs were integrated, for the first time, into a silicone mouthguard using a 3D-printed holder. The proof of concept was successfully demonstrated through the monitoring of the glucose concentration in saliva after the ingestion of chocolate. According to the results reported herein, paper-based microfluidic devices offer great potential for salivary diagnostics, making their integration into a silicone mouthguard possible, generating simple, low-cost, instrument-free, and powerful wearable sensors.
KeywordsClinical diagnostics Diabetes mellitus Instrument-free portable sensors Periodontitis Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices
This study was supported by CNPq (grants 426496/2018-3 and 308140/2016-8), CAPES (grant 3363/2014), INCTBio (grant 465389/2014-7), and FAPESP (2017/10522-5). CNPq and CAPES are also thanked for the scholarships granted to L.F.C., S.F.V., and L.C.D.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.
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