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On-line coupling of fizzy extraction with gas chromatography


Fizzy extraction (FE) is carried out by first dissolving a carrier gas (typically, carbon dioxide) in a liquid sample at a moderate pressure (typically, 150 kPa) and then rapidly depressurizing the sample. The depressurization leads to instant release of numerous microbubbles in the liquid matrix. The abruptly released gas extracts the volatile solutes and elutes them toward a detector in a short period of time. Here, we describe on-line coupling of FE with gas chromatography (GC). The two platforms are highly compatible and could be combined following several modifications of the interface and adjustments of the extraction sequence. The analytes are released within a short period of time (1.5 s). Thus, the chromatographic peaks are satisfactorily narrow. There is no need to trap the extracted analytes in a loop or on a sorbent, as it is done in standard headspace and microextraction methods. The approach requires only minor sample pretreatment. The main parameters of the FE-GC-mass spectrometry (MS) method were optimized. The results of FE were compared with those of headspace flushing (scavenging headspace vapors), and the enhancement factors were in the order of ~ 2 to 13 (for various analytes). The limits of detection for some of the tested analytes were lower in the proposed FE-GC-MS method than in FE combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS. The method was further tested in analyses of selected real samples (apple flavor milk, mixed fruit and vegetable juice drink, mango flavored drink, pineapple green tea, toothpaste, and yogurt).

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We acknowledge the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan (grant numbers 104-2628-M-007-006-MY4 and 107-3017-F-007-002), the National Chiao Tung University, the National Tsing Hua University, the Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, and the Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project established by the Ministry of Education (MOE), Taiwan.


Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan (grant numbers 104-2628-M-007-006-MY4 and 107–3017-F-007-002)

Ministry of Education (MOE), Taiwan

Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters

National Tsing Hua University

National Chiao Tung University

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Correspondence to Pawel L. Urban.

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Yang, HC., Urban, P.L. On-line coupling of fizzy extraction with gas chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem 411, 2511–2520 (2019).

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  • Extraction
  • Gas chromatography
  • Sample preparation
  • Volatile organic compounds