Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 12, pp 2635–2644 | Cite as

Determination of liquid chromatography/flame ionization detection response factors for alcohols, ketones, and sugars

  • Christian Becker
  • Maik A. JochmannEmail author
  • Torsten C. Schmidt
Research Paper


In the past, the main focus of flame ionization detector (FID) response studies was set on investigations of gas chromatography (GC) relevant analytes such as aliphatic hydrocarbons and selected functional groups. Only a few data are available for liquid chromatography (LC)/FID responses. Within this research paper, we present the FID response factors for a LC/FID system with an aqueous eluent as mobile phase. The study focus on the most common analytes of LC/FID studies in the past as well as several compounds that are not directly GC compatible because of their polarity. Furthermore, the range of substances was extended to isomers, poly-alcohols, and sugars to obtain more detailed information of the influence of hydroxyl groups on the recorded response. The data show a group-specific correlation of response factors with a correlation coefficient (R2) for, e.g., alcohols and ketones of 0.99. Constant contribution factors of functional groups as mentioned in several GC/FID response studies and prediction models were observed to a limited extent. Interactions of sugar analytes with water showed that transfer of GC/FID to LC/FID data cannot be done in general. The underlying mechanisms revealed several new aspects, which have to be taken into account for future response prediction models, especially of small molecules. Interactions between eluent and analytes show that LC/FID response prediction is more complex and requires more than simple addition of functional group contributions.


LC/FID FID Nebulizer interface LC/FID response 


Compliance with ethical standards

The authors declare that no human participants and/or animals were involved in research. The authors declare that no data, text, or theories by others are presented without citation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Becker
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maik A. Jochmann
    • 2
    Email author
  • Torsten C. Schmidt
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.BGB Analytik AGBöcktenSwitzerland
  2. 2.Instrumental Analytical ChemistryUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  3. 3.Centre for Water and Environmental Research (ZWU)University of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

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