Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 411, Issue 10, pp 2209–2221 | Cite as

A double-functionalized polymeric ionic liquid used as solid-phase microextraction coating for efficient aromatic amine extraction and detection with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

  • Yinchenxi Zhang
  • Yixiang DuanEmail author
Research Paper


A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on a new polymeric ionic liquid was prepared for the extraction of trace aromatic amines in water and their detection by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The newly designed polymeric ionic liquid with two functional groups (benzene ring and ether group) was synthesized and fixed on stainless steel wire to effectively extract aromatic amines. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency of the SPME fiber (extraction temperature, extraction time, alkali concentration, and salt concentration) were optimized to establish a headspace SPME–GC–MS method. The correlation coefficients were 0.996 or greater for concentration of the aromatic amines ranging from 0.01 to 10 μg mL-1. In addition, the limits of detection for the new fiber are as low as 0.67 ng mL-1, which is lower than that obtained with polyacrylate. The relative standard deviations of five consecutive extractions for the solution spiked at 1 μg mL-1 by the same fiber were all below 8.3%, and the interfiber relative standard deviations for the solution spiked at the same concentration ranged from 8.9% to 15.2%. Furthermore, long lifetime and good solvent resistance are exhibited by the fiber. Finally, satisfactory relative recovery in the range from 85.3% to 101.9 % was achieved for two environmental water samples.


Solid-phase microextraction Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry Coating Polymeric ionic liquid Aromatic amines 



The authors appreciate the financial support of Sichuan Science and Technology Program (grant number 2017SZ0013).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

216_2019_1664_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (270 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 269 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life Sciences, Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Key Laboratory of Bio-resource and Eco-environment, Ministry of EducationSichuan UniversityChengduChina

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