A bi-end injection capillary electrophoresis method for simultaneous determination of 37 cations and anions in beers
- 115 Downloads
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is excellent at separating all the ions in a sample but is rarely used as a result of its detection issue and easy loss of very fast ions by common one-end injection methods. Herein we propose a newly developed method aimed at simultaneous determination of positive and negative ions with a home-made CE device, featuring bi-end injection and contactless conductivity detection at the middle. By simply using 2.5 M acetic acid as a running buffer, the method can separate 37 ions (3 inorganic anions, 8 inorganic cations, 10 biogenic amines, and 16 amino acids) per run, with linearity between 10 and 2000 μM (R2 > 0.99), limit of detection of 1.0–16.6 μM, and limit of quantification of 2.3–31.7 μM. The recovery measured by spiking standards into samples at high, middle, and low levels was between 73% and 110%. The intra- and interday repeatability of the 37 analytes ranged from 0.69% to 8.97% and from 0.68% to 11.04%, respectively. The proposed method was evaluated by analysis of 21 beers and, in addition to acquiring the concentration information, the brands of the tested beers were distinguished. This method is of high throughput, fast, and cost-effective. It could be a promising tool for ionomic analysis.
KeywordsCapillary electrophoresis Beer ions Biogenic amines Amino acids Brand differentiation
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21727809, 21475136, 21235007 & 21621062) and Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH034).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We declare that there is no conflict of interest in this article.
- 6.Redruello B, Ladero V, Cuesta I, Álvarez-Buylla JR, Martín MC, Fernández M, et al. A fast, reliable, ultra high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of amino acids, biogenic amines and ammonium ions in cheese, using diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate as a derivatising agent. Food Chem. 2013;139(1–4):1029–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Bisson A, Anslyn E. Optical sensing of inorganic anions employing a synthetic receptor and ionic colorimetric dyes. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans. 1999;2(6):1111–4.Google Scholar
- 28.Huang K-J, Jin C-X, Song S-L, Wei C-Y, Liu Y-M, Li J. Development of an ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction method for sensitive determination of biogenic amines: application to the analysis of octopamine, tyramine and phenethylamine in beer samples. J Chromatogr B. 2011;879(9–10):579–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Charalambous G. Involatile constituents of beer. Brewing Sci. 1981;2:167–254.Google Scholar