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Comparison of μ-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and py-GCMS as identification tools for microplastic particles and fibers isolated from river sediments

Abstract

In recent years, many studies on the analysis of microplastics (MP) in environmental samples have been published. These studies are hardly comparable due to different sampling, sample preparation, as well as identification and quantification techniques. Here, MP identification is one of the crucial pitfalls. Visual identification approaches using morphological criteria alone often lead to significant errors, being especially true for MP fibers. Reliable, chemical structure-based identification methods are indispensable. In this context, the frequently used vibrational spectroscopic techniques but also thermoanalytical methods are established. However, no critical comparison of these fundamentally different approaches has ever been carried out with regard to analyzing MP in environmental samples. In this blind study, we investigated 27 single MP particles and fibers of unknown material isolated from river sediments. Successively micro-attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (μ-ATR-FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) in combination with thermochemolysis were applied. Both methods differentiated between plastic vs. non-plastic in the same way in 26 cases, with 19 particles and fibers (22 after re-evaluation) identified as the same polymer type. To illustrate the different approaches and emphasize the complementarity of their information content, we exemplarily provide a detailed comparison of four particles and three fibers and a critical discussion of advantages and disadvantages of both methods.

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Acknowledgments

This work was part of the Leibniz Competition project “Microplastics as vector for microbial populations in the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea (MikrOMIK),” funded by the German Leibniz Association (grant number SAW-2014-IOW-2). Parts of this study were funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF 03F0734D) in the joint research project BASEMAN (JPI-Oceans microplastics projects). Furthermore, Andrea Käppler is thankful for financial support by the BONUS MICROPOLL project funded jointly by the EU and BMBF (03F0775A).

The authors want to thank Rica Wegner, Nicole Stollberg, and Oliver Biniasch (all formerly IOW) for the extraction and isolation of the particles and fibers. The technical assistance of Oliver Voigt (IPF) during ATR-FTIR measurements is also acknowledged.

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Käppler, A., Fischer, M., Scholz-Böttcher, B.M. et al. Comparison of μ-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and py-GCMS as identification tools for microplastic particles and fibers isolated from river sediments. Anal Bioanal Chem 410, 5313–5327 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-1185-5

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Keywords

  • Microplastics
  • py-GCMS
  • ATR FTIR
  • Environmental samples
  • Comparison
  • Validation