Precise, accurate and user-independent blood collection system for dried blood spot sample preparation
An accurate and precise 3 μL blood collection and dispensing system is presented for the preparation of dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Using end-to-end glass capillaries in conjugation with pre-punched DBS pads, a blood micro collection system was developed to eliminate the haematocrit dispersion, widely associated with DBS technology, while providing better levels of accuracy and precision during sample preparation. This methodology is compared to traditional micro-volume blood collection systems, such as a pipette and a digitally controlled analytical syringe. Results showed that % of recovery for the capillary methodology was closer to 100% across the three haematocrit (HCT) levels tested and when prepared by two users (98 to 100% for capillaries, 78 to 104% for pipette and 93 to 97% for digital syringe) attesting a higher accuracy. Additionally, by taking advantage of the capillary action mechanism to collect and dispense autonomously the desired volume of blood onto the DBS pad, coefficients of variation between two individuals were significantly lower than with standard methodologies (capillaries—0.05 to 0.77%, pipette—12.71 to 18.53% and digital syringe—0.72 to 1.77%). This alternate aspiration and dispensing methodology could be used by different users without compromising accuracy or precision when handling low volumes of blood during the pre-analytical steps.
KeywordsDried blood spot Microsampling Glass capillary Blood
Acknowledgements and Funding information
This research was conducted by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Training Centre for Portable Analytical Separation Technologies (IC140100022). MCB is a recipient of an ARC Future Fellowship (FT130100101). RN is a recipient of an ARC ICHDR scholarship and an International Research Tuition Scholarship from the University of South Australia. Support from the University of South Australia, University of Tasmania and Trajan Scientific and Medical is gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
All volunteers signed a consent form stating their understanding of the experiments and protecting their privacy. Ethics approval was provided by the University of South Australia (application number: 0000036188) and by the University of Tasmania (reference number H0015476) from their respective ethics committees.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare the following competing financial interest(s): Andrew Gooley is an executive director of Trajan Scientific and Medical. Florian Lapierre is subject to intellectual property rights. All the other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 14.Hill JR, Valmont IJ, Wright JK. Reducing the hematocrit effect for dried blood spot analysis. Am Assoc Clin Chem Annu Meet. 9627; 2013.Google Scholar
- 16.Kip AE, Kiers KC, Rosing H, Schellens JHM, Beijnen JH, Dorlo TPC. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) as an alternative to conventional dried blood spots in the quantification of miltefosine in dried blood samples. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016;135:160–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2016.12.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Verplaetse R, Henion J. Hematocrit-independent quantitation of stimulants in dried blood spots: pipette versus microfluidic-based volumetric sampling coupled with automated flow-through desorption and on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS bioanalysis. Anal Chem. 2016;88:6789–96. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar