Chemometrics-assisted microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the determination of uric acid by silver nanoparticle plasmon resonance
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This manuscript reports on the application of chemometric methods for the development of an optimized microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD). As an example, we applied chemometric methods for both device optimization and data processing of results of a colorimetric uric acid assay. Box–Behnken designs (BBD) were utilized for the optimization of the device geometry and the amount of thermal inkjet-deposited assay reagents, which affect the assay performance. Measurement outliers were detected in real time by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of scanned images. The colorimetric assay mechanism is based on the on-device formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through the interaction of uric acid, ammonia, and poly(vinyl alcohol) with silver ions under mild basic conditions. The yellow color originating from visible light absorption by localized surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs can be detected by the naked eye or, more quantitatively, with a simple flat-bed scanner. Under optimized conditions, the linearity of the calibration curve ranges from 0.1–5 × 10−3 mol L−1 of uric acid with a limit of detection of 33.9 × 10−6 mol L−1 and a relative standard of deviation 4.5% (n = 3 for determination of 5.0 × 10−3 mol L−1 uric acid).
KeywordsBox–Behnken design Response surface methodology Partial least squares discriminant analysis Microfluidic paper-based analytical device Silver nanoparticles Uric acid
We acknowledge professor Lutgarde M.C. Buydens (Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) for her help and advice.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent of the participant who provided the urine sample was obtained.
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