Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 15, pp 3473–3482 | Cite as

Novel comprehensive multidimensional liquid chromatography approach for elucidation of the microbosphere of shikimate-producing Escherichia coli SP1.1/pKD15.071 strain

  • Francesco Cacciola
  • Domenica Mangraviti
  • Francesca Rigano
  • Paola Donato
  • Paola Dugo
  • Luigi MondelloEmail author
  • Hernan J. Cortes
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Discovery of Bioactive Compounds


Shikimic acid is a intermediate of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and the preferred starting material for production of the most commonly prescribed anti-influenza drug, Tamiflu. Its six-membered carbocyclic ring is adorned with several chiral centers and various functionalities, making shikimic acid a valuable chiral synthon. When microbially-produced, in addition to shikimic acid, numerous other metabolites are exported out of the cytoplasm and accumulate in the culture medium. This extracellular matrix of metabolites is referred to as the microbosphere. Due to the high sample complexity, in this study, the microbosphere of shikimate-producing Escherichia coli SP1.1/pKD15.071 was analyzed by liquid chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. GC analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivatives was also carried out in order to support the elucidation of the selected metabolites in the microbosphere. The elucidation of the metabolic fraction of this bacterial strain might be of valid aid for improving, through genetic changes, the concentration and yield of shikimic acid synthesized from glucose.

Graphical abstract


Shikimic acid Metabolites Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography Microbosphere 



The authors would like to thank Prof. John Frost and Dr. Karen Draths (Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, USA) for supplying the samples and helpful discussions.

Funding information

The authors wish to thank the “University of Messina” for support through the “Research and Mobility” Project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Cacciola
    • 1
  • Domenica Mangraviti
    • 2
  • Francesca Rigano
    • 3
  • Paola Donato
    • 1
  • Paola Dugo
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Luigi Mondello
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Hernan J. Cortes
    • 5
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Odontoiatriche e delle Immagini Morfologiche e FunzionaliUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed AmbientaliUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  3. 3.Chromaleont s.r.l., c/o Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed AmbientaliUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly
  4. 4.Unit of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of MedicineUniversity Campus Bio-Medico of RomeRomeItaly
  5. 5.H. J. Cortes Consulting, LLC.MidlandUSA

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