Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 409, Issue 27, pp 6429–6438 | Cite as

Construction of a highly sensitive signal-on aptasensor based on gold nanoparticles/functionalized silica nanoparticles for selective detection of tryptophan

  • Ayemeh Bagheri Hashkavayi
  • Jahan Bakhsh Raoof
  • Reza Ojani
Research Paper


In this work, a highly sensitive, low-cost, and label-free aptasensor based on signal-on mechanisms of response was developed by immobilizing the aptamer on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/amine-functionalized silica nanoparticle (FSN)/screen-printed electrode (SPE) surface for highly selective electrochemical detection of tryptophan (Trp). The hemin (Hem), which interacted with the guanine bases of the aptamer, worked as a redox indicator to generate a readable electrochemical signal. The changes in the charge transfer resistance have been monitored using the voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) techniques. The peak current of Hem linearly increased with increasing concentration of Trp, in differential pulse voltammetry, from 0.06 to 250 nM with a detection limit of 0.026 nM. Also, the results obtained from EIS studies showed that the Trp was detected sensitively with the fabricated aptasensor in the range of 0.06–250 nM. The detection limit is 0.01 nM, much lower than that obtained by most of the reported electrochemical methods. The usage of aptamer as a recognition layer led to a sensor with high affinity for Trp, compared with control amino acids of tyrosine, histidine, arginine, lysine, valine, and methionine. The usability of the aptasensor was successfully evaluated by the determination of Trp in a human blood serum sample. Thus, the sensor could provide a promising plan for the construction of aptasensors.

Graphical abstract

Schematic outline the principle for tryptophan aptasensing


Tryptophan Hemin Signal-on aptasensor Functionalized silica nanoparticles Gold nanoparticles 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this research result.

This work was carried out under the supervision of the North Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran (Amol, Iran), with ethical approval.

Healthy human serum sample for real sample analysis was supplied by the North Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran (Amol, Iran) with ethical approval.

Supplementary material

216_2017_588_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (994 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 994 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayemeh Bagheri Hashkavayi
    • 1
  • Jahan Bakhsh Raoof
    • 1
  • Reza Ojani
    • 1
  1. 1.Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of MazandaranBabolsarIran

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