Development of QuEChERS-based extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A in seafood: fish, bivalves, and seaweeds
- 631 Downloads
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in different seafood samples was developed and validated. Sample preparation was based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based procedure through an extraction of target analytes with acidified acetonitrile (MeCN) added with inorganic salts (MgSO4, NaCl) followed by a liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) using hexane-tertbutylmethyl ether/hexane-benzene to eliminate matrix co-extracts. The developed method promotes a better removal of interferences than that achieved with the classic QuEChERS procedure. The method was validated following the guidelines of the European Union (EU) for relevant seafood matrices such as fish, mussel, and seaweed. Accuracy (81 % average of recovery), reproducibility (12 % average relative standard deviation for both intra-day and inter-day repeatability), and sensitivity for the target analytes (method detection limits of 0.07 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 0.06 ng/g ww for BPA and TBBPA, respectively) were evaluated for all the matrices studied.
KeywordsBisphenol A Tetrabromobisphenol A LC-MS/MS QuEChERS Fish Contaminants
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under the ECsafeSEAFOOD project (grant agreement no. 311820). S.C.C., C.O. and J.O.F. thank REQUIMTE, FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) and FEDER through the project UID/QUI/50006/2013 - POCI/01/0145/FEDER/007265 with financial support from FCT/MEC through national funds and cofinanced by FEDER, under the Partnership Agreement PT2020. S.C.C. acknowledges the FCT for the IF/01616/2015 contract.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- 2.Norman-network. 2016. http://www.norman-network.net/?q=node/19. Accessed July 2016.
- 4.Chu S, Haffner GD, Letcher RJ. Simultaneous determination of tetrabromobisphenol A, tetrachlorobisphenol A, bisphenol A, and other halogenated analogues in sediment and sludge by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1097:25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Cunha SC, Almeida C, Mendes E, Fernandes JO. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in beverages and powdered infant formula by dispersive liquid–liquid micro-extraction and heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam. 2011;28:513–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Canada Report (2013) Ethanol, 2,2'-[(1-methylethylidene)bis[(2,6-dibromo-4,1-phenylene)oxy]]bis chemical abstracts service registry number 4162-45-2 and benzene, 1,1'-(1-methylethylidene)bis[3,5-dibromo-4-(2- propenyloxy)-chemical abstracts service registry number 25327-89-3, Environment Canada Health Canada November 2013.Google Scholar
- 32.European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. Off J Eur Commun. 2002;L221:8–36.Google Scholar
- 34.Canesi L, Fabbri E. Environmental effects of BPA: focus on aquatic species. Dose–Response Int J. 2015;1–14Google Scholar
- 35.European Standard Method EN 15662.2008. Foods of plant origin – Determination of pesticide residues using GC-MS and/or LC-MS/MS following acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and cleanup by dispersive SPE – QuEChERS-method.Google Scholar
- 37.Remberger M, Lilja K, Kaj L, Viktor T, Brorström-Lundén E (2011) Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2009 Subreport 3: UV-filters. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd.Google Scholar
- 38.Sanco document no. 12571/2013. Method validation and quality control procedures for pesticide residues analysis in food and feed.Google Scholar
- 39.Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU. Commission recommendation of March 3 (2014) on the monitoring of traces of brominated flame retardants in food.Google Scholar
- 45.Commission Regulation (EU) no. 10/2011 of 14 January 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32011R0010. Accessed: xxxx.