Development of QuEChERS-based extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A in seafood: fish, bivalves, and seaweeds
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A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in different seafood samples was developed and validated. Sample preparation was based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based procedure through an extraction of target analytes with acidified acetonitrile (MeCN) added with inorganic salts (MgSO4, NaCl) followed by a liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) using hexane-tertbutylmethyl ether/hexane-benzene to eliminate matrix co-extracts. The developed method promotes a better removal of interferences than that achieved with the classic QuEChERS procedure. The method was validated following the guidelines of the European Union (EU) for relevant seafood matrices such as fish, mussel, and seaweed. Accuracy (81 % average of recovery), reproducibility (12 % average relative standard deviation for both intra-day and inter-day repeatability), and sensitivity for the target analytes (method detection limits of 0.07 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 0.06 ng/g ww for BPA and TBBPA, respectively) were evaluated for all the matrices studied.
KeywordsBisphenol A Tetrabromobisphenol A LC-MS/MS QuEChERS Fish Contaminants
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under the ECsafeSEAFOOD project (grant agreement no. 311820). S.C.C., C.O. and J.O.F. thank REQUIMTE, FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) and FEDER through the project UID/QUI/50006/2013 - POCI/01/0145/FEDER/007265 with financial support from FCT/MEC through national funds and cofinanced by FEDER, under the Partnership Agreement PT2020. S.C.C. acknowledges the FCT for the IF/01616/2015 contract.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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