This article describes a paper-based low cost single cell HaloChip assay that can be used to assess drug- and radiation-induced DNA damage at point-of-care. Printing ink on paper effectively blocks fluorescence of paper materials, provides high affinity to charged polyelectrolytes, and prevents penetration of water in paper. After exposure to drug or ionizing radiation, cells are patterned on paper to create discrete and ordered single cell arrays, embedded inside an agarose gel, lysed with alkaline solution to allow damaged DNA fragments to diffuse out of nucleus cores, and form diffusing halos in the gel matrix. After staining DNA with a fluorescent dye, characteristic halos formed around cells, and the level of DNA damage can be quantified by determining sizes of halos and nucleus with an image processing program based on MATLAB. With its low fabrication cost and easy operation, this HaloChip on paper platform will be attractive to rapidly and accurately determine DNA damage for point-of-care evaluation of drug efficacy and radiation condition.
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This work has been supported by a New Investigator Award from Bankhead-Copley Cancer Research Program and a seed grant from Kennedy Space Center to Liyuan Ma. This work is partially supported by a Director’s New Innovator Award from National Institute of Health (NIH) to Ming Su (1DP2EB016572).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no potential conflict of interest.
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Ma, L., Qiao, Y., Jones, R. et al. Single cell HaloChip assay on paper for point-of-care diagnosis. Anal Bioanal Chem 408, 7753–7759 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-016-9872-6
- Point-of-care diagnosis
- Paper-based assay
- DNA damage
- Single cell array