Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 408, Issue 24, pp 6833–6844 | Cite as

Application of microwave-assisted extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sex hormones and corticosteroids in sewage sludge samples

  • Rayco Guedes-Alonso
  • Sergio Santana-Viera
  • Sarah Montesdeoca-Esponda
  • Cristina Afonso-Olivares
  • Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera
  • José Juan Santana-Rodríguez
Research Paper

Abstract

Hormonal compounds are a concern to the international community because they can affect the aquatic biota and are therefore considered to be endocrine-disrupting compounds. These compounds have lipophilic properties, so they tend to accumulate in solid matrices, such as sewage sludge. This work presents the optimization of a microwave-assisted extraction process combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of 15 hormonal compounds in sludge samples. The proposed method has relative standard deviations below 23 %, good recoveries (over 71 %) for all compounds, detection limits that ranged from 1.1 to 7.9 ng g−1 and quantification limits which ranged from 3.7 to 26.3 ng g−1. The method was used to analyse sludge samples from four different wastewater treatment plants of Gran Canaria (Spain) with different wastewater treatments. 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, norgestrel and cortisone were detected in sludge samples at concentrations that ranged from 17.3 to 1.44 × 103 ng g−1. The developed method permits the use of small quantities of sample and organic solvents, presents short extractions times and is the first one based on microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of both sex hormones and corticosteroids.

Keywords

Mass spectrometry Microwave-assisted extraction Sludge Steroid hormones Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rayco Guedes-Alonso
    • 1
  • Sergio Santana-Viera
    • 1
  • Sarah Montesdeoca-Esponda
    • 1
  • Cristina Afonso-Olivares
    • 1
  • Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera
    • 1
  • José Juan Santana-Rodríguez
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Universitario de Estudios Ambientales y Recursos Naturales (i-UNAT)Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain

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