Simultaneous quantification of 11 cannabinoids and metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using WAX-S tips

Abstract

A comprehensive cannabinoid urine quantification method may improve clinical and forensic result interpretation and is necessary to support our clinical research. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantification method for ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCAA), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV (THCVCOOH), THC-glucuronide (THC-gluc), and THCCOOH-glucuronide (THCCOOH-gluc) in urine was developed and validated according to the Scientific Working Group on Toxicology guidelines. Sample preparation consisted of disposable pipette extraction (WAX-S) of 200 μL urine. Separation was achieved on a Kinetex C18 column using gradient elution with flow rate 0.5 mL/min, mobile phase A (10 mM ammonium acetate in water), and mobile phase B (15 % methanol in acetonitrile). Total run time was 14 min. Analytes were monitored in both positive and negative ionization modes by scheduled multiple reaction monitoring. Linear ranges were 0.5–100 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH; 0.5–50 μg/L for 11-OH-THC, CBD, CBN, THCAA, and THC-gluc; 1–100 μg/L for CBG, THCV, and THCVCOOH; and 5–500 μg/L for THCCOOH-gluc (R 2 > 0.99). Analytical biases were 88.3–113.7 %, imprecisions 3.3–14.3 %, extraction efficiencies 42.4–81.5 %, and matrix effect −10 to 32.5 %. We developed and validated a comprehensive, simple, and rapid LC-MS/MS cannabinoid urine method for quantification of 11 cannabinoids and metabolites. This method is being used in a controlled cannabis administration study, investigating urine cannabinoid markers documenting recent cannabis use, chronic frequent smoking, or route of drug administration and potentially improving urine cannabinoid result interpretation.

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Abbreviations

11-OH-THC:

11-Hydroxy-THC

CBD:

Cannabidiol

CBG:

Cannabigerol

CBN:

Cannabinol

THC:

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol

THCAA:

9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid

THCCOOH:

11-nor-9-Carboxy-THC

THCCOOH-gluc:

THCCOOH-glucuronide

THC-gluc:

THC-glucuronide

THCV:

9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin

THCVCOOH:

11-nor-9-Carboxy-THCV

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Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the Intramural Research Program (IRP) of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health.

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Correspondence to Karl B. Scheidweiler.

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Andersson, M., Scheidweiler, K.B., Sempio, C. et al. Simultaneous quantification of 11 cannabinoids and metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using WAX-S tips. Anal Bioanal Chem 408, 6461–6471 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-016-9765-8

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Keywords

  • Cannabinoid
  • Urine
  • LC-MS/MS
  • DPX
  • THC