A direct solid sampling analysis method for the detection of silver nanoparticles in biological matrices
- 690 Downloads
Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are implemented in food contact materials due to their powerful antimicrobial properties and so may enter the human food chain. Hence, it is desirable to develop easy, sensitive and fast analytical screening methods for the determination of AgNPs in complex biological matrices. This study describes such a method using solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). A recently reported novel evaluation strategy uses the atomization delay of the respective GFAAS signal as significant indicator for AgNPs and thereby allows discrimination of AgNPs from ionic silver (Ag+) in the samples without elaborate sample pre-treatment. This approach was further developed and applied to a variety of biological samples. Its suitability was approved by investigation of eight different food samples (parsley, apple, pepper, cheese, onion, pasta, maize meal and wheat flour) spiked with ionic silver or AgNPs. Furthermore, the migration of AgNPs from silver-impregnated polypropylene food storage boxes to fresh pepper was observed and a mussel sample obtained from a laboratory exposure study with silver was investigated. The differences in the atomization delays (Δt ad) between silver ions and 20-nm AgNPs vary in a range from −2.01 ± 1.38 s for maize meal to +2.06 ± 1.08 s for mussel tissue. However, the differences were significant in all investigated matrices and so indicative of the presence/absence of AgNPs. Moreover, investigation of model matrices (cellulose, gelatine and water) gives the first indication of matrix-dependent trends. Reproducibility and homogeneity tests confirm the applicability of the method.
KeywordsSilver nanoparticle detection Direct solid sampling Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Silver nanoparticle entry in food Biological samples Robust screening method
The authors are very grateful to Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for their financial support of this work by project LE 2457/8-1.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 3.Jokar M, Rahman RA (2014) Study of silver ion migration from melt-blended and layered-deposited silver polyethylene nanocomposite into food simulants and apple juice. Food Addit Contam Part AGoogle Scholar
- 6.Addo Ntim S, Thomas TA, Begley TH, Noonan GO (2015) Characterization and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials. Food Addit Contam Part AGoogle Scholar
- 10.Jany AK, Kuiper H, Larsen JC, Le Neindre P, Schans J, Schlatter J, Silano V, Skerfving S, Vannier P (2009) Scientific opinion of the Scientific Committee on a request from the European Commission on the Potential Risks Arising from Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies on Food and Feed Safety. EFSA J 958:1–39Google Scholar
- 11.EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) (2011) Scientific opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, silver zeolite A (silver zinc sodium ammonium aluminosilicate), silver content 2-5 %, for use in food contact materials. EFSA J 9:1999–2011Google Scholar
- 12.(2011) Verordnung (EU)Nr. 1169/2011 des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates. 1–46Google Scholar
- 13.(2011) Commission recommendation of 18 October 2011 on the definition of nanomaterial. 1–3Google Scholar
- 14.Lövestam G, Rauscher H, Roebben G, Klüttgen BS, Gibson N, Putaud J-P, Stamm H (2010) Considerations on a definition of nanomaterial for regulatory purposes. Publications OfficeGoogle Scholar
- 16.Tiede K, Boxall ABA, Tiede D, Tear SP, David H, Lewis J (2009) A robust size-characterisation methodology for studying nanoparticle behaviour in “real” environmental samples, using hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. J Anal At Spectrom 24:964–972. doi: 10.1039/b822409a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Bolea E, Jiménez-Lamana J, Laborda F, Abad-Álvaro I, Bladé C, Arola L, Castillo JR (2014) Detection and characterization of silver nanoparticles and dissolved species of silver in culture medium and cells by AsFlFFF-UV-Vis-ICPMS: application to nanotoxicity tests. Analyst 139:914–922. doi: 10.1039/C3AN01443F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Loeschner K, Navratilova J, Købler C, Mølhave K, Wagner S, von der Kammer F, Larsen EH (2013) Detection and characterization of silver nanoparticles in chicken meat by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation with detection by conventional or single particle ICP-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:8185–8195. doi: 10.1007/s00216-013-7228-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Resano M, Lapeña AC, Belarra MA (2013) Potential of solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to monitor the Ag body burden in individual Daphnia magna specimens exposed to Ag nanoparticles. Anal Methods 5:1130–1139. doi: 10.1039/c2ay26456k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Resano M, Mozas E, Crespo C, Briceño J, del Campo Menoyo J, Belarra MA (2010) Solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to monitor the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in mice tissue after intravenous administration. J Anal At Spectrom 25:1864–1873. doi: 10.1039/c0ja00086h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (2015) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27. In: Nutr. List. http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/nutrients/index. Accessed 20 Aug 2015