Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 407, Issue 21, pp 6447–6461 | Cite as

Origin authentication of distillers’ dried grains and solubles (DDGS)—application and comparison of different analytical strategies

  • Philippe VermeulenEmail author
  • Thorben Nietner
  • Simon A. Haughey
  • Zengling Yang
  • Noelia Tena
  • Hana Chmelarova
  • Saskia van Ruth
  • Monika Tomaniova
  • Ana Boix
  • Lujia Han
  • Christopher T. Elliott
  • Vincent Baeten
  • Carsten Fauhl-Hassek
Research Paper


In the context of products from certain regions or countries being banned because of an identified or non-identified hazard, proof of geographical origin is essential with regard to feed and food safety issues. Usually, the product labeling of an affected feed lot shows origin, and the paper documentation shows traceability. Incorrect product labeling is common in embargo situations, however, and alternative analytical strategies for controlling feed authenticity are therefore needed. In this study, distillers’ dried grains and solubles (DDGS) were chosen as the product on which to base a comparison of analytical strategies aimed at identifying the most appropriate one. Various analytical techniques were investigated for their ability to authenticate DDGS, including spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques combined with multivariate data analysis, as well as proven techniques for authenticating food, such as DNA analysis and stable isotope ratio analysis. An external validation procedure (called the system challenge) was used to analyze sample sets blind and to compare analytical techniques. All the techniques were adapted so as to be applicable to the DDGS matrix. They produced positive results in determining the botanical origin of DDGS (corn vs. wheat), and several of them were able to determine the geographical origin of the DDGS in the sample set. The maintenance and extension of the databanks generated in this study through the analysis of new authentic samples from a single location are essential in order to monitor developments and processing that could affect authentication.


DDGS Feed Authenticity Traceability Rapid spectroscopic method Mass spectrometric method 



The research described in this paper was funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007‐2013) under Grant Agreement 265702, QSAFFE project ( The information in the paper reflects the authors’ views; the EC is not liable for any use of the information contained herein. The authors wish to thank all those who provided samples, particularly the QSAFFE project partners, PROVIMI, THOMPSON, and CAU, as well as those who collected and dispatched samples within the partner network, particularly Rudi Krska (IFA-Tulln) and all the technicians who conducted the analyses. The authors also wish to thank PROVIMI for providing the DDGS NIR spectral databases and Eric Janssen (CRA-W) for the PCR assessment of the botanical origin of mixed samples.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe Vermeulen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thorben Nietner
    • 2
  • Simon A. Haughey
    • 3
  • Zengling Yang
    • 4
  • Noelia Tena
    • 5
  • Hana Chmelarova
    • 6
  • Saskia van Ruth
    • 7
  • Monika Tomaniova
    • 6
  • Ana Boix
    • 5
  • Lujia Han
    • 4
  • Christopher T. Elliott
    • 3
  • Vincent Baeten
    • 1
  • Carsten Fauhl-Hassek
    • 2
  1. 1.Valorisation of Agricultural Products DepartmentWalloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W)GemblouxBelgium
  2. 2.Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR)BerlinGermany
  3. 3.Institute for Global Food SecurityQueen’s University Belfast (QUB)BelfastUK
  4. 4.College of EngineeringChina Agricultural University (CAU)BeijingChina
  5. 5.European Commission, Joint Research CentreInstitute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM)GeelBelgium
  6. 6.Department of Food Analysis and NutritionUniversity of Chemistry and Technology, Prague (UCT)Prague 6Czech Republic
  7. 7.RIKILT Institute of Food SafetyWageningen University and Research Centre (WUR)WageningenThe Netherlands

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