Comparative study of the endoscope-based bevelled and volume fiber-optic Raman probes for optical diagnosis of gastric dysplasia in vivo at endoscopy
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This study aims to compare the diagnostic performance of the two different endoscope-based fiber-optic Raman probe designs (i.e., bevelled and volume Raman probes) for real-time, in vivo detection of gastric dysplasia at endoscopy. To conduct the clinical comparison, a total of 1,050 in vivo tissue Raman spectra (normal: n = 864; dysplasia: n = 186) were acquired from 66 gastric patients (normal: n = 48; dysplasia: n = 18) by using bevelled Raman probe, while a total of 1,913 in vivo tissue Raman spectra (normal: n = 1,786; dysplasia: n = 127) were acquired from 98 gastric patients (normal: n = 87; dysplasia: n = 11) by using volume Raman probe. The bevelled Raman probe provides approximately twofold improvements in tissue Raman-to-autofluorescence intensity ratios as compared to the use of volume Raman probe. Partial least squares discriminant analysis together with leave-one patient-out cross-validation on in vivo tissue Raman spectra acquired yields a diagnostic accuracy of 93.0 % (sensitivity of 92.5 %; specificity of 93.1 %) for differentiating gastric dysplasia from normal gastric tissue by using the bevelled fiber-optic Raman probe, which is superior to the diagnostic performance (accuracy of 88.4 %; sensitivity of 85.8 %; specificity of 88.6 %) by using the volume Raman probe. This work demonstrates that the Raman spectroscopic technique coupled with bevelled fiber-optic Raman probe has great potential to enhance in vivo diagnosis of gastric precancer and early cancer at endoscopy.
KeywordsRaman spectroscopy Fiber-optic Raman probe In vivo optical diagnosis Gastric dysplasia Endoscopy
This work was supported by the National Medical Research Council (NMRC) (NMRC/CIRG/1331/2012; BnB13dec037), the National Research Foundation-Proof-of-Concept (NRF-POC) (NRF2014NRF-POC001-012), and the Academic Research Fund (AcRF)-Tier 2 from the Ministry of Education (MOE) (MOE2014-T2-1-010), Singapore.
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