Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 407, Issue 11, pp 3093–3102 | Cite as

Gravimetric preparation and characterization of primary reference solutions of molybdenum and rhodium

  • Angela Kaltenbach
  • Janine Noordmann
  • Volker Görlitz
  • Carola Pape
  • Silke Richter
  • Heinrich Kipphardt
  • Gernot Kopp
  • Reinhard Jährling
  • Olaf RienitzEmail author
  • Bernd Güttler
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Reference Materials for Chemical Analysis


Gravimetrically prepared mono-elemental reference solutions having a well-known mass fraction of approximately 1 g/kg (or a mass concentration of 1 g/L) define the very basis of virtually all measurements in inorganic analysis. Serving as the starting materials of all standard/calibration solutions, they link virtually all measurements of inorganic analytes (regardless of the method applied) to the purity of the solid materials (high-purity metals or salts) they were prepared from. In case these solid materials are characterized comprehensively with respect to their purity, this link also establishes direct metrological traceability to The International System of Units (SI). This, in turn, ensures the comparability of all results on the highest level achievable. Several national metrology institutes (NMIs) and designated institutes (DIs) have been working for nearly two decades in close cooperation with commercial producers on making an increasing number of traceable reference solutions available. Besides the comprehensive characterization of the solid starting materials, dissolving them both loss-free and completely under strict gravimetric control is a challenging problem in the case of several elements like molybdenum and rhodium. Within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), in the Joint Research Project (JRP) called SIB09 Primary standards for challenging elements, reference solutions of molybdenum and rhodium were prepared directly from the respective metals with a relative expanded uncertainty associated with the mass fraction of U rel(w) < 0.05 %. To achieve this, a microwave-assisted digestion procedure for Rh and a hotplate digestion procedure for Mo were developed along with highly accurate and precise inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) methods required to assist with the preparation and as dissemination tools.


Digestion Rhodium Molybdenum Reference solution Metrological traceability ICP OES MC-ICP-MS 



Financial Support by EMRP (the European Metrology Research Programme) is gratefully acknowledged (EMRP SIB09, “Primary Standards for Challenging Elements”). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela Kaltenbach
    • 1
  • Janine Noordmann
    • 1
  • Volker Görlitz
    • 1
  • Carola Pape
    • 1
  • Silke Richter
    • 2
  • Heinrich Kipphardt
    • 2
  • Gernot Kopp
    • 3
  • Reinhard Jährling
    • 1
  • Olaf Rienitz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bernd Güttler
    • 1
  1. 1.Physikalisch-Technische BundesanstaltBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and TestingBerlinGermany
  3. 3.MLS GmbHLeutkirchGermany

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