Liquid chromatography with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry for determination of water-soluble vitamins in foods
- 709 Downloads
Vitamins are essential for improving and maintaining human health, and the main source of vitamins is the diet. Measurement of the quantities of water-soluble vitamins in common food materials is important to understand the impact of vitamin intake on human health, and also to provide necessary information for regulators to determine adequate intakes. Liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) based methods for water-soluble vitamin analysis are abundant in the literature, but most focus on only fortified foods or dietary supplements or allow determination of only a single vitamin. In this work, a method based on LC/MS and LC/MS/MS has been developed to allow simultaneous quantitation of eight water-soluble vitamins, including multiple forms of vitamins B3 and B6, in a variety of fortified and unfortified food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Optimization of extraction of unbound vitamin forms and confirmation using data from external laboratories ensured accuracy in the assigned values, and addition of stable isotope labeled internal standards for each of the vitamins allowed for increased precision.
KeywordsVitamins Nutrition Fortification Food Mass spectrometry Isotope dilution
The author would like to thank the members and staff of the Grocery Manufacturer’s Association Food Industry Analytical Chemists (FIAC) Share Group for their contribution of data used in the assignment of the values for water-soluble vitamins in these various food-matrix SRMs. The author would also like to thank Katherine Sharpless (NIST) and James Yen (NIST) for compilation and statistical analysis, respectively, of the data used in the determination of the final certified and reference values. The author also acknowledges Barbara Porter (NIST), Michele Schantz (NIST), and Brian Lang (NIST) for their contributions to determination of the purity of the water-soluble vitamin reference standards used in these studies. The author also greatly appreciates helpful discussions with Catherine Rimmer (NIST) and Stephen Wise (NIST), and the overall coordination of the numerous SRM projects by Lane Sander (NIST), Katherine Sharpless (NIST), Stephen Wise (NIST), and Laura Wood (NIST).
Conflict of interest
The author declares no competing financial interest.
- 1.Combs GF Jr (2012) The vitamins: fundamental aspects in nutrition and health. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 2.Food Labeling. 21 C.F.R. § 101. 2013. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=101.22. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
- 3.79 FR 11879. 2014. 3-3-2014. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-03-03/pdf/2014-04387.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
- 4.National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2014 Survey content brochure. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/survey_content_99_14.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
- 5.US Department of Agriculture ARS. USDA National nutrient database for standard reference, Release 26. 2013. Nutrient data laboratory home page. http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
- 6.Jedlicka A, Klimes J (2005) Determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in different matrices using high-performance liquid chromatography. Chem Papers-Chemicke Zvesti 59:202–222Google Scholar
- 13.Woollard DC, Indyk HE (2002) Rapid determination of thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and niacinamide in infant formulas by liquid chromatography. J AOAC Int 85:945–951Google Scholar
- 16.Huang M, Winters D, Crowley R, Sullivan D (2009) Measurement of water-soluble B vitamins in infant formula by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int 92:1728–1738Google Scholar
- 19.Chen P, Atkinson R, Wolf WR (2009) Single-laboratory validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector-fluorescence detector/mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin dietary tablets. J AOAC Int 92:680–687Google Scholar
- 29.Sami R, Li Y, Qi BK, Wang SN, Zhang QZ, Han FF, Ma Y, Jing J, Jiang LZ (2014) HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C) and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and Beta-Carotene) of Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus). J Chem. doi: 10.1155/2014/831357
- 32.Gentili A, Caretti F, D’Ascenzo G, Marchese S, Perret D, Di Corcia D, Rocca LM (2008) Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in selected food matrices by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:2029–2043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Standard Reference Materials Order Request System (2014) National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. http://nist.gov/srm/ Accessed 7 Nov 2014