Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 407, Issue 11, pp 3023–3034 | Cite as

Preparation of candidate reference materials for the determination of phosphorus containing flame retardants in styrene-based polymers

  • Thomas Roth
  • Raquel Urpi Bertran
  • Andreas Latza
  • Katrin Andörfer-Lang
  • Claudia Hügelschäffer
  • Manfred Pöhlein
  • Ralph Puchta
  • Christian Placht
  • Harald Maid
  • Walter Bauer
  • Rudi van EldikEmail author
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Reference Materials for Chemical Analysis


Candidate reference materials (RM) for the analysis of phosphorus-based flame retardants in styrene-based polymers were prepared using a self-made mini-extruder. Due to legal requirements of the current restriction for the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, focus now is placed on phosphorus-based flame retardants instead of the brominated kind. Newly developed analytical methods for the first-mentioned substances also require RMs similar to industrial samples for validation and verification purposes. Hence, the prepared candidate RMs contained resorcinol-bis-(diphenyl phosphate), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphine oxide as phosphorus-based flame retardants. Blends of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene as well as blends of high-impact polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide were chosen as carrier polymers. Homogeneity and thermal stability of the candidate RMs were investigated. Results showed that the candidate RMs were comparable to the available industrial materials. Measurements by ICP/OES, FTIR and NMR confirmed the expected concentrations of the flame retardants and proved that analyte loss and degradation, respectively, was below the uncertainty of measurement during the extrusion process. Thus, the candidate RMs were found to be suitable for laboratory use.


Reference material Phosphorus-based flame retardant Quantification of phosphorus Extrusion Styrene-based polymers RoHS 



We gratefully acknowledge Peter Igel, Manfred Weller and Uwe Reißer from the machine shop of the department, for their expert assistance in technical troubleshooting concerning the mini-extruder. The Institute of Chemical Reaction Engineering is acknowledged for support with ICP/OES measurements. Furthermore, we would like to thank Prof. Dr. Tim Clark from the Computer Chemistry Center and the Regionales Rechenzentrum Erlangen (RRZE) for a generous assignment of computer time.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Roth
    • 1
  • Raquel Urpi Bertran
    • 1
  • Andreas Latza
    • 1
  • Katrin Andörfer-Lang
    • 1
  • Claudia Hügelschäffer
    • 1
  • Manfred Pöhlein
    • 1
  • Ralph Puchta
    • 1
  • Christian Placht
    • 2
  • Harald Maid
    • 2
  • Walter Bauer
    • 2
  • Rudi van Eldik
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and PharmacyUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Organic Chemistry II, Department of Chemistry and PharmacyUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of ChemistryJagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland

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