Ionic liquids as stationary phases in gas chromatography—an LSER investigation of six commercial phases and some applications
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The separation properties of six novel stationary phases for gas chromatography, commercially available from Sigma-Aldrich (Supelco) and based on ionic liquids (ILs), were investigated. The linear solvation energy relationship model (LSER) was used to describe the molecular interactions between these stationary phases and 30 solutes. The solutes belong to different groups of compounds, like haloalkanes, alcohols, ketones, aromatics, aliphatics, and others. A good description of different interactions, as described by the LSER model, could be achieved. The calculated values of system constants for the ionic liquid phases were compared with constants of commonly used standard phases like a 5 % phenyl/95 % dimethyl siloxane and a polyethylene glycol phase. The solute descriptors are in good agreement with those found by previous authors who have used the LSER model for 44 different ionic liquids as stationary phase. The experiments were carried out at two temperatures to evaluate the influence on the phase parameters and separation characteristics. The interactions of different functional groups with the IL phases are discussed. These novel IL phases are a promising replacement of or an addition to common polar phases. Based on the evaluated phase properties, several possibilities for applications of these novel phases are shown.
KeywordsIonic liquid stationary phases Gas chromatography LFER (Abrahams) model
Supelco is thanked for donating the GC columns used in this work.
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