Recent developments in dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

Abstract

During the past 7 years and since the introduction of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME), the method has gained widespread acceptance as a simple, fast, and miniaturized sample preparation technique. Owing to its simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, high recovery, and low consumption of organic solvents and reagents, it has been applied for determination of a vast variety of organic and inorganic compounds in different matrices. This review summarizes the DLLME principles, historical developments, and various modes of the technique, recent trends, and selected applications. The main focus is on recent technological advances and important applications of DLLME. In this review, six important aspects in the development of DLLME are discussed: (1) the type of extraction solvent, (2) the type of disperser solvent, (3) combination of DLLME with other extraction methods, (4) automation of DLLME, (5) derivatization reactions in DLLME, and (6) the application of DLLME for metal analysis. Literature published from 2010 to April 2013 is covered.

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Acknowledgments

Financial support from the Research Council of Isfahan University of Technology and the Center of Excellency in Chemistry of Isfahan University of Technology is gratefully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Mohammad Saraji.

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Published in the topical collection Microextraction Techniques with guest editors Miguel Valcárcel Cases, Soledad Cárdenas Aranzana and Rafael Lucena Rodríguez.

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Saraji, M., Boroujeni, M.K. Recent developments in dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. Anal Bioanal Chem 406, 2027–2066 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-7467-z

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Keywords

  • Sample preparation
  • Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction
  • Preconcentration Organic compounds
  • Metal ions
  • Review