Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 406, Issue 1, pp 123–137 | Cite as

Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook

  • Liza Rassaei
  • Wouter Olthuis
  • Seiya Tsujimura
  • Ernst J. R. Sudhölter
  • Albert van den Berg


Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies.


Lactate sensors Biosensors Enzymatic sensors Electrochemical sensors Optical sensors Noninvasive sensors 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liza Rassaei
    • 1
  • Wouter Olthuis
    • 2
  • Seiya Tsujimura
    • 3
  • Ernst J. R. Sudhölter
    • 1
  • Albert van den Berg
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Organic Materials and Interfaces, Department of Chemical EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.MESA + Institute, BIOS/Lab-on-a-Chip groupUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Division of Materials Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

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