Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 12, pp 4127–4138 | Cite as

Analysis of polyfluoroalkyl substances and bisphenol A in dried blood spots by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

  • Wanli Ma
  • Kurunthachalam Kannan
  • Qian Wu
  • Erin M. Bell
  • Charlotte M. Druschel
  • Michele Caggana
  • Kenneth M. Aldous
Original Paper


Dried blood spots (DBS), collected as part of the newborn screening program (NSP) in the USA, is a valuable resource for studies on environmental chemical exposures and associated health outcomes in newborns. Nevertheless, determination of concentrations of environmental chemicals in DBS requires assays with great sensitivity, as the typical volume of blood available on a DBS with 16-mm diameter disc is approximately 50 μL. In this study, we developed a liquid–liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and bisphenol A (BPA) in DBS. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, and sensitivity, by spiking of target chemicals at different levels on Whatman 903 filter cards, which is used in the collection of DBS by the NSP. Contamination arising from collection, storage, and handling of DBS is an important issue to be considered in the analysis of trace levels of environmental chemicals in DBS. For the evaluation of the magnitude of background contamination, field blanks were prepared from unspotted portions of DBS filter cards collected by the NSP. The method was applied for the measurement of PFOS, PFOA, and BPA in 192 DBS specimens provided by NSP of New York State. PFOS and PFOA were detected in 100 % of the specimens analyzed. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA measured in DBS were similar to those reported earlier in the whole blood samples of newborns. BPA was also found in 86 % of the specimens at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 36 ng/mL (excluding two outliers). Further studies are needed to evaluate the sources of BPA exposures and health outcomes in newborns.


Dried blood spot Newborn screening PFOS PFOA BPA HPLC-MS/MS 


  1. 1.
    Salihovic S, Mattioli L, Lindströma G, Lind L, Monica Lind P, Bavel B (2012) A rapid method for screening of the Stockholm Convention POPs in small amounts of human plasma using SPE and HRGC/HRMS. Chemosphere 86:747–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Riddell N, Arsenault G, Benskin JP, Chittim B, Martin JW, McAlees A, McCrindle R (2009) Branched perfluorooctane sulfonate isomer quantification and characterization in blood serum samples by HPLC/ESI-MS (/MS). Environ Sci Technol 43:7902–7908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shlosberg A, Rumbeiha WK, Lublin A, Kannan K (2011) A database of avian blood spot examinations for exposure of wild birds to environmental toxicants: the DABSE biomonitoring project. J Environ Monit 13:1547–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Olsen GW, Lange CC, Ellefson ME, Mair DC, Church TR, Goldberg CL, Herron RM, Medhdizadekashi Z, Nobiletti JB, Rios JA (2012) Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl concentrations in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000–2010. Environ Sci Technol 46:6330–6338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burse V, DeGuzman M, Korver M, Najam A, Williams C, Hannon W, Therrell B (1997) Preliminary investigation of the use of dried-blood spots for the assessment of in utero exposure to environmental pollutants. Biochem Mol Med 61:236–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spliethoff HM, Tao L, Shaver SM, Aldous KM, Pass KA, Kannan K, Eadon GA (2008) Use of newborn screening program blood spots for exposure assessment: declining levels of perfluorinated compounds in New York State infants. Environ Sci Technol 42:5361–5367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Olney RS, Moore CA, Ojodu JA, Lindegren ML, Hannon WH (2006) Storage and use of residual dried blood spots from state newborn screening programs. J Pediatr 148:618–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lawson G, Cocks E, Tanna S (2012) Quantitative determination of atenolol in dried blood spot samples by LC-HRMS: a potential method for assessing medication adherence. J Chromatogr B 897:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dua V, Pant C, Sharma V, Pathak G (1996) Determination of HCH and DDT in finger-prick whole blood dried on filter paper and its field application for monitoring concentrations in blood. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 56:50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kato K, Wanigatunga AA, Needham LL, Calafat AM (2009) Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals. Anal Chim Acta 656:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Otero-Santos SM, Delinsky AD, Valentin-Blasini L, Schiffer J, Blount BC (2009) Analysis of perchlorate in dried blood spots using ion chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 81:1931–1936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suyagh MF, Iheagwaram G, Kole PL, Millership J, Collier P, Halliday H, McElnay JC (2010) Development and validation of a dried blood spot-HPLC assay for the determination of metronidazole in neonatal whole blood samples. Anal Bioanal Chem 397:687–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lu D, Wang D, Ip HSS, Barley F, Ramage R, She J (2012) Measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a single drop of blood. J Chromatogr B 891–892:36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adam BW, Alexander JR, Smith SJ, Chace DH, Loeber JG, Elvers L, Hannon WH (2000) Recoveries of phenylalanine from two sets of dried-blood-spot reference materials: prediction from hematocrit, spot volume, and paper matrix. Clin Chem 46:126–128Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liao C, Kannan K (2011) High levels of bisphenol A in paper currencies from several countries, and implications for dermal exposure. Environ Sci Technol 45:6761–6768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liao C, Kannan K (2011) Widespread occurrence of bisphenol A in paper and paper products: implications for human exposure. Environ Sci Technol 45:9372–9379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reagen WK, Ellefson ME, Kannan K, Giesy JP (2008) Comparison of extraction and quantification methods of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma, serum, and whole blood. Anal Chim Acta 628(2):214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Taylor JK (1987) Quality Assurance of Chemical Measurements. Lewis Publishers, ChelseaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pérez JJ, Williams MK, Weerasekera G, Smith K, Whyatt RM, Needham LL, Barr DB (2010) Measurement of pyrethroid, organophosphorus, and carbamate insecticides in human plasma using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 878:2554–2562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Matuszewski BK, Constanzer ML, Chavez-Eng CM (2003) Strategies for the assessment of matrix effect in quantitative bioanalytical methods based on HPLC-MS/MS. Anal Chem 75:3019–3030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Padmanabhan V, Siefert K, Ransom S, Johnson T, Pinkerton J, Anderson L, Tao L, Kannan K (2008) Maternal bisphenol-A levels at delivery: a looming problem? J Perinatol 28:258–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wanli Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kurunthachalam Kannan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qian Wu
    • 1
  • Erin M. Bell
    • 3
  • Charlotte M. Druschel
    • 4
  • Michele Caggana
    • 1
  • Kenneth M. Aldous
    • 1
  1. 1.Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public HealthState University of New York at AlbanyAlbanyUSA
  2. 2.International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and EnvironmentHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public HealthState University of New York at AlbanyAlbanyUSA
  4. 4.New York State Department of HealthBureau of Environmental and Occupational EpidemiologyAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations