An ultra performance liquid chromatography method coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed to determine nonylphenol and 15 of its possible precursors (nonylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol carboxylates) in aqueous and particulate wastewater matrices. Final effluent method detection limits for all compounds ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 ng l−1 in aqueous phases and from 1.4 to 39.4 ng g−1 in particulate phases of samples. The method was used to measure the performance of a trickling filter wastewater treatment works, which are not routinely monitored despite their extensive usage. Relatively good removals of nonylphenol were observed over the biological secondary treatment process, accounting for a 53 % reduction. However, only an 8 % reduction in total nonylphenolic compound load was observed. This was explained by a shortening in ethoxylate chain length which initiated production of shorter polyethoxylates ranging from 1 to 4 ethoxylate units in length in final effluents. Modelling the possible impact of trickling filter discharge demonstrated that the nonylphenol environmental quality standard may be exceeded in receiving waters with low dilution ratios. In addition, there is a possibility that the EQS can be exceeded several kilometres downstream of the mixing zone due to the biotransformation of readily degradable short-chained precursors. This accentuates the need to monitor ‘non-priority’ parent compounds in wastewater treatment works since monitoring nonylphenol alone can give a false indication of process performance. It is thus recommended that future process performance monitoring and optimisation is undertaken using the full suite of nonylphenolic moieties which this method can facilitate.
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B.P. is grateful to the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for the award of a PhD scholarship. We would like to thank the following UK Water Companies: Northumbrian Water, Anglian Water, Severn Trent Water, Yorkshire Water and United Utilities for providing their support and funding. Finally, Dan McMillan at Waters Ltd. is acknowledged for analytical support.
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Petrie, B., McAdam, E.J., Whelan, M.J. et al. The determination of nonylphenol and its precursors in a trickling filter wastewater treatment process. Anal Bioanal Chem 405, 3243–3253 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-6765-9