Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 13, pp 4385–4395 | Cite as

Quantifying and characterizing proanthocyanidins in cranberries in relation to urinary tract health

  • Christian G. KruegerEmail author
  • Jess D. Reed
  • Rodrigo P. Feliciano
  • Amy B. Howell


The “A-type” proanthocyanidins in cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are bioactive components associated with prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI). Cranberry juice, fruit (fresh and dried), functional foods, and cranberry dietary supplements are promoted for prevention of UTI and for maintenance of urinary tract health (UTH), on the basis of their content of cranberry proanthocyanidins (c-PAC) with “A-type” interflavan bonds. With increasing consumer use of cranberries for maintenance of UTH and an expanding number of commercial cranberry products of different types, the availability of unified methods for measuring levels of c-PAC is important. This review discusses quantitative and qualitative analysis of c-PAC with “A-type” interflavan bonds in relation to their biological activity for UTI prevention. The integrity (including authenticity, standardization, efficacy, and safety) of cranberry fruit, juices, and dietary supplements may now be measured by using recent advances in mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, production of c-PAC standards, and improved simple quantitative techniques.


Cranberry DMAC Mass spectrometry Urinary tract health Proanthocyanidins 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian G. Krueger
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jess D. Reed
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rodrigo P. Feliciano
    • 3
  • Amy B. Howell
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Complete Phytochemical SolutionsLLCCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Reed Research Group, Dept. Animal SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Dept. of Food ScienceUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  4. 4.Marucci Center for Blueberry Cranberry ResearchRutgers UniversityChatsworthUSA

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