Skip to main content

Conducting polymer-based hybrid assemblies for electrochemical sensing: a materials science perspective

Abstract

In this topical review, progress achieved in amperometric sensing of different analytes over conducting polymer-based hybrid electrocatalysts is summarized. We report a variety of synthetic methods and the resulting hybrid assemblies, with the effectiveness of such strategies, for designing conjugated polymer-based hybrids as robust sensors for amperometric detection. Beyond incorporation of metal nanoparticles, metal-oxide and non-oxide semiconductors, carbon-based nanomaterials (nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide), and special dopant ions are also discussed. Moreover, some particularly interesting miscellaneous approaches, for example photo-amperometric sensing or use of overoxidized polymers, are also emphasized. Determination of dissolved gases (for example O2, NO, and NO2), ions (sulfite, nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, bromate, and iodate) and smaller and larger molecules (for example H2O2, ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), urea (UA), amino acids, hydrazine, NADH, serotonin, and epinephrine) is discussed. These achievements are reviewed from the materials perspective, addressing both synthetic and electrocatalytic aspects of the polymer-based modified electrodes. Beyond simple or more sophisticated mixing, a wide range of methods of preparation is presented, including chemical (one-pot polymerization, impregnation), electrochemical (co-deposition, doping type inclusion, etc.) and combined strategies. Classification of such synthetic routes is also included. However, it is important to note that we omit studies in which conducting polymers alone were used for determination of different species. Furthermore, because excellent reviews—cited in this work also—are available on immobilization of biomolecules (for example enzymes) for biosensing purposes, this topic, also, is excluded.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  1. Brett CMA, Oliveira-Brett AM (2011) Electrochemical sensing in solution—origins, applications and future perspectives. J Solid State Electrochem 15:1487–1494

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Seeber R, Terzi F (2011) The evolution of amperometric sensing from the bare to the modified electrode systems. J Solid State Electrochem 15:1523–1534

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Inzelt G (2011) Rise and rise of conducting polymers. J Solid State Electrochem 15:1711–1718

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Inzelt G, Pineri M, Schultze J, Vorotyntsev M (2000) Electron and proton conducting polymers: recent developments and prospects. Electrochim Acta 45:2403–2421

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. McQuade DT, Pullen AE, Swager TM (2000) Conjugated polymer-based chemical sensors. Chem Rev 100:2537–2574

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Lange U, Roznyatovskaya NV, Mirsky VM (2008) Conducting polymers in chemical sensors and arrays. Anal Chim Acta 614:1–26

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Huang J, Virji S, Weiller BH, Kaner RB (2003) Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors. J Am Chem Soc 125:314–325

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Huang J, Virji S, Weiller BH, Kaner RB (2004) Nanostructured polyaniline sensors. Chem Eur J 10:1314–1319

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bobacka J, Ivaska A, Lewenstam A (2003) Potentiometric Ion Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers. Electroanalysis 15:366–374

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gyurcsanyi RE, Nyback AS, Toth K, Nagy G, Ivaska A (1998) Novel polypyrrole based all-solid-state potassium-selective microelectrodes. Analyst 123:1339–1344

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Malinauskas A (1999) Electrocatalysis at conducting polymers. Synth Met 107:75–83

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Ramanavicius A, Ramanaviciene A, Malinauskas A (2006) Electrochemical sensors based on conducting polymer—polypyrrole. Electrochim Acta 51:6025–6037

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Alber KS, Cox JA, Kulesza PJ (1997) Solid state amperometric sensors for gas phase analytes: a review of recent advances. Electroanalysis 9:97–101

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cosnier S (2003) Biosensors based on electropolymerized films: new trends. Anal Bioanal Chem 377:507–520

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Gerard M, Chaubey A, Malhotra BD (2002) Application of conducting polymers to biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 17:345–359

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Lahiff E, Lynam C, Gilmartin N, O’Kennedy R, Diamond D (2010) The increasing importance of carbon nanotubes and nanostructured conducting polymers in biosensors. Anal Bioanal Chem 398:1575–1589

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Sabouraud G, Sadki S, Brodie N (2000) The mechanisms of pyrrole electropolymerization. Chem Soc Rev 29:283–293

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Debiemme-Chouvy C, Tran TTM (2008) An insight into the overoxidation of polypyrrole materials. Electrochem Commun 10:947–950

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Tóth PS, Janáky C, Berkesi O, Tamm T, Visy C (2012) On the unexpected cation exchange behavior, caused by covalent bond formation between PEDOT and Cl ions: extending the conception for the polymer-dopant interactions. J Phys Chem B 116:5491–5000

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Debiemme-Chouvy C (2010) A very thin overoxidized polypyrrole membrane as coating for fast time response and selective H2O2 amperometric sensor. Biosens Bioelectron 25:2454–2457

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Hatchett DW, Josowicz M (2008) Composites of intrinsically conducting polymers as sensing nanomaterials. Chem Rev 108:746–769

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ahuja T, Kumar D (2009) Recent progress in the development of nano-structured conducting polymers/nanocomposites for sensor applications. Sens Actuators B 136:275–286

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Pournaghi-Azar MH, Ojani M (2000) Electrochemistry and electrocatalytic activity of polypyrrole/ferrocyanide films on a glassy carbon electrode. J Solid State Electrochem 4:75–79

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Raoof J-B, Ojani R, Rashid-Nadimi S (2005) Voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid and dopamine in the same sample at the surface of a carbon paste electrode modified with polypyrrole/ferrocyanide films. Electrochim Acta 50:4694–4698

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Oukil D, Makhloufi L, Saidani B (2007) Preparation of polypyrrole films containing ferrocyanide ions deposited on to thermally pre-treated and untreated iron substrate: application in the electroanalytical determination of ascorbic acid. Sens Actuators B 123:1083–1089

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Vasantha VS, Chen S-M (2005) Electrochemical preparation and electrocatalytic properties of PEDOT/ferricyanide film-modified electrodes. Electrochim Acta 51:347–355

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Tsai T-H, Chen T-W, Chen S-M (2010) Selective electroanalysis of ascorbic acid using a nickel hexacyanoferrate and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid film modified electrode. Electroanalysis 22:1655–1662

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Tsai T, Chen T (2011) A study of copper (II) hexacyanoferrate-PEDOT films and their sensitivity for ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. Int J Electrochem Sci 6:2058–2071

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Tsai T-H, Chen T-W, Chen S-M, Sarawathi R (2012) Nickel, copper and manganese hexacyanoferrate with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid film modified electrode for selectively determination of ascorbic acid. Russ J Electrochem 48:291–301

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Awasthi S, Srivastava A, Singla ML (2011) Voltammetric determination of citric acid and quinine hydrochloride using polypyrrole–pentacyanonitrosylferrate/platinum electrode. Synth Met 161:1707–1712

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Ojani R, Raoof J-B, Zarei E (2009) Electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of cysteamine by poly-N, N-dimethylaniline/ferrocyanide film modified carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysis 21:1189–1193

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Tsai T, Huang Y-C, Chen S-H (2011) Manganese hexacyanoferrate with poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid film modified electrode for the determination of catechin and melatonin. Int J Electrochem Sci 6:3238–3253

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Mao HY, Pickup PG (1989) Electronically conductive anion-exchange polymers based on polypyrrole - preparation, characterization, electrostatic binding of ferrocyanide and electrocatalysis of ascorbic-acid oxidation. J Electroanal Chem 265:127–142

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Welch CM, Compton RG (2006) The use of nanoparticles in electroanalysis: a review. Anal Bioanal Chem 384:601–619

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Campbell FW, Compton RG (2010) The use of nanoparticles in electroanalysis: an updated review. Anal Bioanal Chem 396:241–259

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Terzi F, Zanardi C, Martina V, Pigani L, Seeber R (2008) Electrochemical, spectroscopic and microscopic characterisation of novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/gold nanoparticles composite materials. J Electroanal Chem 619–620:75–82

    Google Scholar 

  37. Granot E, Katz E, Basnar B, Willner I (2005) Enhanced bioelectrocatalysis using Au-nanoparticle/polyaniline hybrid systems in thin films and microstructured rods assembled on electrodes. Chem Mater 17:4600–4609

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Kumar SS, Mathiyarasu J, Phani KL (2005) Exploration of synergism between a polymer matrix and gold nanoparticles for selective determination of dopamine. J Electroanal Chem 578:95–103

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Mathiyarasu J, Senthilkumar S, Phani KLN, Yegnaraman V (2008) PEDOT-Au nanocomposite film for electrochemical sensing. Mater Lett 62:571–573

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Zanardi C, Terzi F, Seeber R (2010) Composite electrode coatings in amperometric sensors. Effects of differently encapsulated gold nanoparticles in poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) system. Sens Actuators B 148:277–282

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Hatchett DW, Millick NM, Kinyanjui JM, Pookpanratana S, Bär M, Hofmann T, Luinetti A, Heske C (2011) The electrochemical reduction of PdCl4 2− and PdCl6 2− in polyaniline: Influence of Pd deposit morphology on methanol oxidation in alkaline solution. Electrochim Acta 56:6060–6070

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Holzhauser P, Bouzek K, Bastl Z (2005) Electrocatalytic properties of polypyrrole films prepared with platinate(II) counter-ions. Synth Met 155:501–508

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Hatchett DW, Wijeratne R, Kinyanjui JM (2006) Reduction of and in polyaniline: catalytic oxidation of methanol at morphologically different composites. J Electroanal Chem 593:203–210

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Ferreira VC, Melato AI, Silva AF, Abrantes LM (2011) Attachment of noble metal nanoparticles to conducting polymers containing sulphur – preparation conditions for enhanced electrocatalytic activity. Electrochim Acta 56:3567–3574

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Mourato A, Cabrita JF, Ferraria AM, Rego AM Bd, Abrantes LM (2010) Electrocatalytic activity of polypyrrole films incorporating palladium particles. Catal Today 158:2–11

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Mailu SN, Waryo TT, Ndangili PM, Ngece FR, Baleg AA, Baker PG, Iwuoha EI (2010) Determination of anthracene on Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles/overoxidized-polypyrrole composite modified glassy carbon electrodes. Sensors 10:9449–9465

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Terzi F, Zanfrognini B, Zanardi C, Pigani L, Seeber R (2012) Electroreduction of chloramines through novel electrode materials. Electroanalysis 24:833–841

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Fabregat G, Cordova-Mateo E, Armelin E, Bertran O, Aleman C (2011) Ultrathin films of polypyrrole derivatives for dopamine detection. J Phys Chem C 115:14933–14941

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Feng X, Mao C, Yang G, Hou W, Zhu J-J (2006) Polyaniline/Au composite hollow spheres: synthesis, characterization, and application to the detection of dopamine. Langmuir 22:4384–4389

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Tsakova V, Ivanov S, Lange U, Stoyanova A, Lyutov V, Mirsky VM (2011) Electroanalytical applications of nanocomposites from conducting polymers and metallic nanoparticles prepared by layer-by-layer deposition. Pure Appl Chem 83:345–358

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Stoyanova A, Ivanov S, Tsakova V, Bund A (2011) Au nanoparticle–polyaniline nanocomposite layers obtained through layer-by-layer adsorption for the simultaneous determination of dopamine and uric acid. Electrochim Acta 56:3693–3699

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Ivanov S, Lange U, Tsakova V, Mirsky VM (2010) Electrocatalytically active nanocomposite from palladium nanoparticles and polyaniline: Oxidation of hydrazine. Sens Actuators B 150:271–278

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Zanfrognini B, Zanardi C, Terzi F, Ääritalo T, Viinikanoja A, Lukkari J, Seeber R (2011) Layer-by-layer deposition of a polythiophene/Au nanoparticles multilayer with effective electrochemical properties. J Solid State Electrochem 15:2395–2400

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Tian JQ, Li HL, Lu WB, Luo YL, Wang L, Sun XP (2011) Preparation of Ag nanoparticle-decorated poly(m-phenylenediamine) microparticles and their application for hydrogen peroxide detection. Analyst 136:1806–1809

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Qin X, Lu W, Luo Y, Chang G, Sun X (2011) Preparation of Ag nanoparticle-decorated polypyrrole colloids and their application for H2O2 detection. Electrochem Commun 13:785–787

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Chang GH, Luo YL, Lu WB, Qin XY, Asiri AM, Al-Youbi AO, Sun XP (2012) Ag nanoparticles decorated polyaniline nanofibers: synthesis, characterization, and applications toward catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol and electrochemical detection of H2O2 and glucose. Catal Sci Technol 2:800–806

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Lyutov V, Tsakova V (2011) Palladium-modified polysulfonic acid-doped polyaniline layers for hydrazine oxidation in neutral solutions. J Electroanal Chem 661:186–191

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Kondratiev VV, Pogulaichenko NA, Tolstopjatova EG, Malev VV (2011) Hydrogen peroxide electroreduction on composite PEDOT films with included gold nanoparticles. J Solid State Electrochem 15:2383–2393

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Pintér E, Fekete ZA, Berkesi O, Makra P, Patzko A, Visy C (2007) Characterization of poly (3-octylthiophene)/silver nanocomposites prepared by solution doping. J Phys Chem C 111:11872–11878

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Atta NF, El-Kady MF, Galal A (2010) Simultaneous determination of catecholamines, uric acid and ascorbic acid at physiological levels using poly(N-methylpyrrole)/Pd-nanoclusters sensor. Anal Biochem 400:78–88

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Atmeh M, Alcock-Earley BE (2011) A conducting polymer/Ag nanoparticle composite as a nitrate sensor. J Appl Electrochem 41:1341–1347

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Atta NF, El-Kady MF (2009) Poly(3-methylthiophene)/palladium sub-micro-modified sensor electrode. Part II: Voltammetric and EIS studies, and analysis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. Talanta 79:639–647

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Ueda M, Dietz H, Anders A, Kneppe H, Meixner A, Plieth W (2002) Double-pulse technique as an electrochemical tool for controlling the preparation of metallic nanoparticles. Electrochim Acta 48:377–386

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Ahammad AJS, Lee J-J, Rahman MA (2009) Electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes. Sensors 9:2289–2319

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Peña RC, Bertotti M, Brett CMA (2011) Methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotube modified electrode for the amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide. Electroanalysis 23:2290–2296

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Ding L, Li Q, Zhou D, Cui H, An H, Zhai J (2012) Modification of glassy carbon electrode with polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite: application to electro-reduction of bromate. J Electroanal Chem 668:44–50

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Sabzi E, Rezapour K (2010) Polyaniline-multi-wall-carbon nanotube nanocomposites as a dopamine sensor. J Serbian Chem Soc 75:537–549

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Bao Y, Song J, Mao Y, Han D, Yang F, Niu L, Ivaska A (2011) Graphene oxide-templated polyaniline microsheets toward simultaneous electrochemical determination of AA/DA/UA. Electroanalysis 23:878–884

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Liu S, Tian J, Wang L, Luo Y, Sun X (2011) Production of stable aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanorods using graphene oxide as a stabilizing agent and their application for nitrite detection. Analyst 136:4898–4902

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Fan Y, Liu J-H, Yang C-P, Yu M, Liu P (2011) Graphene–polyaniline composite film modified electrode for voltammetric determination of 4-aminophenol. Sens Actuators B 157:669–674

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Qiu J-D, Shi L, Liang R-P, Wang G-C, Xia X-H (2012) Controllable deposition of a platinum nanoparticle ensemble on a polyaniline/graphene hybrid as a novel electrode material for electrochemical sensing. Chem Eur J 18:7950–7959

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Santhosh P, Manesh K, Gopalan A, Lee K (2006) Fabrication of a new polyaniline grafted multi-wall carbon nanotube modified electrode and its application for electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide. Anal Chim Acta 575:32–38

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Wang Q, Yun Y, Zheng J (2009) Nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a polyaniline-single walled carbon nanotubes composite in a room temperature ionic liquid. Microchim Acta 167:153–157

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Tu X, Xie Q, Jiang S, Yao S (2007) Electrochemical quartz crystal impedance study on the overoxidation of polypyrrole-carbon nanotubes composite film for amperometric detection of dopamine. Biosens Bioelectron 22:2819–2826

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Zhang X, Wang S, Jia L, Xu Z, Zeng Y (2008) An electrochemical sensor for determination of calcium dobesilate based on PoPD/MWNTs composite film modified glassy carbon electrode. J Biochem Biophys Methods 70:1203–1209

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Santhosh P, Manesh KM, Gopalan A, Lee K-P (2007) Novel amperometric carbon monoxide sensor based on multi-wall carbon nanotubes grafted with polydiphenylamine—Fabrication and performance. Sens Actuators B 125:92–99

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Shahrokhian S, Saberi R-S (2011) Electrochemical preparation of over-oxidized polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite on glassy carbon electrode and its application in epinephrine determination. Electrochim Acta 57:132–138

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Ragupathy D, Park J, Lee S, Kim J, Gomathi P, Kim M, Lee S, Do Ghim H, Rajendran A, Lee S, Jeon K (2011) Electrochemical grafting of poly(2,5-dimethoxy aniline) on to multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified electrode and electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid. Macromol Res 19:764–769

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Manesh KM, Santhosh P, Komathi S, Kim NH, Park JW, Gopalan AI, Lee K-P (2008) Electrochemical detection of celecoxib at a polyaniline grafted multiwall carbon nanotubes modified electrode. Anal Chim Acta 626:1–9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Shahrokhian S, Saberi R-S, Kamalzadeh Z (2011) Sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of methyldopa based on polypyrrole/carbon nanoparticle composite thin film made by in situ electropolymerization. Electroanalysis 23:2248–2254

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Si P, Chen HL, Kannan P, Kim DH (2011) Selective and sensitive determination of dopamine by composites of polypyrrole and graphene modified electrodes. Analyst 136:5134–5138

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Österholm A, Lindfors T, Kauppila J, Damlin P, Kvarnström C (2012) Electrochemical incorporation of graphene oxide into conducting polymer films. Electrochim Acta 83:463–470

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Ramesha GK, Kumara AV, Sampath S (2012) In situ electrochemical polymerization at Air–water interface: surface-pressure-induced, graphene-oxide-assisted preferential orientation of polyaniline. J Phys Chem C 116:13997–14004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Si W, Lei W, Zhang Y, Xia M, Wang F, Hao Q (2012) Electrodeposition of graphene oxide doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film and its electrochemical sensing of catechol and hydroquinone. Electrochim Acta 85:295–301

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Wang H-S, Li T-H, Jia W-L, Xu H-Y (2006) Highly selective and sensitive determination of dopamine using a Nafion/carbon nanotubes coated poly(3-methylthiophene) modified electrode. Biosens Bioelectron 22:664–669

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Quan DP, Tuyen DP, Lam TD, Tram PTN, Binh NH, Viet PH (2011) Electrochemically selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic and uric acids on the surface of the modified Nafion/single wall carbon nanotube/poly(3-methylthiophene) glassy carbon electrodes. Colloids Surf B 88:764–770

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Li Y, Wang P, Wang L, Lin X (2007) Overoxidized polypyrrole film directed single-walled carbon nanotubes immobilization on glassy carbon electrode and its sensing applications. Biosens Bioelectron 22:3120–3125

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Agui L, Penafarfal C, Yanezsedeno P, Pingarron J (2007) Poly-(3-methylthiophene)/carbon nanotubes hybrid composite-modified electrodes. Electrochim Acta 52:7946–7952

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Lin C-Y, Vasantha VS, Ho K-C (2009) Detection of nitrite using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) modified SPCEs. Sens Actuators B 140:51–57

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. Wan Q, Wang X, Yu F, Wang X, Yang N (2008) Poly(taurine)/MWNT-modified glassy carbon electrodes for the detection of acetaminophen. J Appl Electrochem 39:785–790

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. Silva FDADS, Lopes CB, Kubota LT, Lima PR, Goulart MOF (2012) Poly-xanthurenic acid modified electrodes: an amperometric sensor for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic and uric acids. Sens Actuators B 168:289–296

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Guo M, Chen J, Li J, Tao B, Yao S (2005) Fabrication of polyaniline/carbon nanotube composite modified electrode and its electrocatalytic property to the reduction of nitrite. Anal Chim Acta 532:71–77

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Li M, Jing L (2007) Electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen and its detection on the PANI–MWCNTs composite modified electrode. Electrochim Acta 52:3250–3257

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Zhuang Z, Li J (2011) Electrochemical detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid using overoxidized polypyrrole/graphene modified electrodes. Int J Electrochem Sci 6:2149–2161

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Carvalho RC, Gouveia-Caridade C, Brett CMA (2010) Glassy carbon electrodes modified by multiwalled carbon nanotubes and poly(neutral red): a comparative study of different brands and application to electrocatalytic ascorbate determination. Anal Bioanal Chem 398:1675–1685

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Peairs MJ, Ross AE, Venton BJ (2011) Comparison of Nafion- and overoxidized polypyrrole-carbon nanotube electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Anal Methods 3:2379–2386

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Zou BX, Liu XX, Diamond D, Lau KT (2010) Electrochemical synthesis of WO3/PANI composite for electrocatalytic reduction of iodate. Electrochim Acta 55:3915–3920

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Zou BX, Bian L-J, Wang Y, Li XJ, Liu XX (2011) Electrocatalytic reduction of bromate, chlorate, nitrite and 4-nitrophenol at WO3/PANI modified electrode. Acta Chim Sinica 69:1575–1581

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Tiwari A, Gong S (2008) Electrochemical synthesis of chitosan- co -polyaniline/WO3 ⋅ n H2O composite electrode for amperometric detection of NO2 Gas. Electroanalysis 20:1775–1781

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Bian L-J, Zhang J-H, Qi J, Liu X-X, Dermot D, Lau K-T (2010) Immobilization of molybdenum oxide in polyaniline and electrocatalytic properties of the composite modified electrode. Sens Actuators B 147:73–77

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. Janáky C, Endrödi B, Berkesi O, Visy C (2010) Visible-light-enhanced electrocatalytic activity of a polypyrrole/magnetite hybrid electrode toward the reduction of dissolved dioxygen. J Phys Chem C 114:19338–19344

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. Bencsik G, Janáky C, Endrödi B, Visy C (2012) Electrocatalytic properties of the polypyrrole/magnetite hybrid modified electrode towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of dissolved oxygen. Electrochim Acta 73:53–58

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Feng X, Liu Y, Lu C, Hou W, Zhu J-J (2006) One-step synthesis of AgCl/polyaniline core-shell composites with enhanced electroactivity. Nanotechnology 17:3578–3583

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Yan W, Feng X, Chen X, Li X, Zhu J-J (2008) A selective dopamine biosensor based on AgCl@polyaniline core-shell nanocomposites. Bioelectrochemistry 72:21–27

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Bencsik G, Lukács Z, Visy C (2010) Photo-electrochemical sensor for dissolved oxygen, based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/iron oxalate hybrid electrode. Analyst 135:375–380

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Yonemura H, Yuno K, Takata M, Yamada S (2011) Photoelectrochemical reactions of electrodes modified with poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires. Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 538:171–174

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Janaky C, de Tacconi NR, Chanmanee W, Rajeshwar K (2012) Electrodeposited polyaniline in a nanoporous WO3 matrix: an organic/inorganic hybrid exhibiting both p-and n-type photoelectrochemical activity. J Phys Chem C 116:4234–4242

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Zheng Z, Du Y, Feng Q, Wang Z, Wang C (2012) Facile method to prepare Pd/graphene–polyaniline nanocomposite and used as new electrode material for electrochemical sensing. J Mol Catal A 353–354:80–86

    Google Scholar 

  109. Jin E, Bian X, Lu X, Wang C (2012) Fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole/Prussian blue ternary composite nanofibers and their application for enzymeless hydrogen peroxide detection. J Mater Sci 47:4326–4331

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Zheng T, Lu X, Bian X, Zhang C, Xue Y, Jia X, Wang C (2012) Fabrication of ternary CNT/PPy/KxMnO2 composite nanowires for electrocatalytic applications. Talanta 90:51–56

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Wang Q, Yun Y (2012) A nanomaterial composed of cobalt nanoparticles, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and graphene with high electrocatalytic activity for nitrite oxidation. Microchim Acta 177:411–418

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Zou Y, Sun L, Xu F (2007) Prussian blue electrodeposited on MWNTs-PANI hybrid composites for H2O2 detection. Talanta 72:437–442

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Lee E, Ahmed MS, You J-M, Kim SK, Jeon S (2012) Conducting polymer-coated, palladium-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the electrochemical sensing of hydroxylamine. Thin Solid Films 520:6664–6668

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Zhang K, Zhang N, Zhang L, Xu J, Wang H, Wang C, Geng T (2011) Amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide using a glassy carbon electrode modified with silver nanoparticles on poly(alizarin yellow R). Microchim Acta 173:135–141

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Lupu S (2011) In situ electrochemical preparation and characterization of PEDOT–Prussian blue composite materials. Synth Met 161:384–390

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Teker MŞ, Tamer U, Pekmez NÖ (2012) Fabrication and characterization of poly(vinylferrocenium) perchlorate/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite-coated electrode in methylene chloride. Synth Met 162:924–930

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Kavanoz M, Pekmez NÖ (2011) Poly(vinylferrocenium) perchlorate–polyaniline composite film-coated electrode for amperometric determination of hydroquinone. J Solid State Electrochem 16:1175–1186

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  118. Gaspar S, Muresan L, Patrut A, Popescu IC (1999) PFeW11-doped polymer film modified electrodes and their electrocatalytic activity for H2O2 reduction. Anal Chim Acta 385:111–117

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Mohadesi A, Taher MA (2007) Electrochemical behavior of Naphthol green B doped in polypyrrole film and its application for electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid. Sens Actuators B 123:733–739

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. Gholivand MB, Amiri M (2009) Preparation of polypyrrole/nuclear fast Red films on gold electrode and its application on the electrocatalytic determination of methyl-dopa and ascorbic acid. Electroanalysis 21:2461–2467

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  121. Ragupathy D, Gopalan AI, Lee K-P (2009) Layer-by-layer electrochemical assembly of poly(diphenylamine)/phosphotungstic acid as ascorbic acid sensor. Microchim Acta 166:303–310

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Balamurugan A, Chen S-M (2009) Silver nanograins incorporated PEDOT modified electrode for electrocatalytic sensing of hydrogen peroxide. Electroanalysis 21:1419–1423

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Zhang K, Zhang N, Xu J, Wang H, Wang C, Shi H, Liu C (2011) Silver nanoparticles/poly(2-(N-morpholine) ethane sulfonic acid) modified electrode for electrocatalytic sensing of hydrogen peroxide. J Appl Electrochem 41:1419–1423

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Wang C, Yuan R, Chai Y, Zhang Y, Hu F, Zhang M (2011) Au-nanoclusters incorporated 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole film modified electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and nitrite. Biosens Bioelectron 30:315–319

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Li J, Lin X (2007) Simultaneous determination of dopamine and serotonin on gold nanocluster/overoxidized-polypyrrole composite modified glassy carbon electrode. Sens Actuators B 124:486–493

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  126. Li J, Lin X-Q (2007) Electrodeposition of gold nanoclusters on overoxidized polypyrrole film modified glassy carbon electrode and its application for the simultaneous determination of epinephrine and uric acid under coexistence of ascorbic acid. Anal Chim Acta 596:222–230

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Xue K, Xu Y, Song W (2012) One-step synthesis of 3D dendritic gold@polypyrrole nanocomposites via a simple self-assembly method and their electrocatalysis for H2O2. Electrochim Acta 60:71–77

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Huang X, Li Y, Chen Y, Wang L (2008) Electrochemical determination of nitrite and iodate by use of gold nanoparticles/poly(3-methylthiophene) composites coated glassy carbon electrode. Sens Actuators B 134:780–786

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  129. Huang X, Li YX, Wang P, Wang L (2008) Sensitive determination of dopamine and uric acid by the Use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with poly(3-methylthiophene)/gold nanoparticle composites. Anal Sci 24:1563–1568

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Wang A-J, Feng J-J, Li Y-F, Xi J-L, Dong W-J (2010) In-situ decorated gold nanoparticles on polyaniline with enhanced electrocatalysis toward dopamine. Microchim Acta 171:431–436

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Do J-S, Chang W-B (2001) Amperometric nitrogen dioxide gas sensor: preparation of PAn/Au/SPE and sensing behaviour. Sens Actuators B 72:101–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Do J-S, Chang W-B (2004) Amperometric nitrogen dioxide gas sensor based on PAn/Au/Nafion® prepared by constant current and cyclic voltammetry methods. Sens Actuators B 101:97–106

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  133. Li F, Yang LM, Zhao C, Du ZF (2011) Electroactive gold nanoparticles/polyaniline/polydopamine hybrid composite in neutral solution as high-performance sensing platform. Anal Methods 3:1601–1606

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Hsiao Y-P, Su W-Y, Cheng J-R, Cheng S-H (2011) Electrochemical determination of cysteine based on conducting polymers/gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposites. Electrochim Acta 56:6887–6895

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Atta NF, Galal A, El-Ads EH (2012) Gold nanoparticles-coated poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) for the selective determination of sub-nano concentrations of dopamine in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Electrochim Acta 69:102–111

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Cai L, Chen H (1999) Electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide at platinum microparticles dispersed in a poly (o-phenylenediamine) film. Sens Actuators B 55:14–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Atta NF, El-Kady MF (2010) Novel poly(3-methylthiophene)/Pd, Pt nanoparticle sensor: synthesis, characterization and its application to the simultaneous analysis of dopamine and ascorbic acid in biological fluids. Sens Actuators B 145:299–310

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  138. Dash S, Munichandraiah N (2012) Electrocatalytic oxidation of 1,2-propanediol on electrodeposited Pd–poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanodendrite films in alkaline medium. Electrochim Acta 80:68–76

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Xi L, Ren D, Luo J, Zhu Y (2010) Electrochemical analysis of ascorbic acid using copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified glassy carbon electrode. J Electroanal Chem 650:127–134

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Stoyanova A, Tsakova V (2010) Copper-modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) layers for selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid: I. Role of the polymer layer thickness. J Solid State Electrochem 14:1947–1955

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Stoyanova A, Tsakova V (2010) Copper-modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) layers for selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid: II Role of the characteristics of the metal deposit. J Solid State Electrochem 14:1957–1965

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Ulubay S, Dursun Z (2010) Cu nanoparticles incorporated polypyrrole modified GCE for sensitive simultaneous determination of dopamine and uric acid. Talanta 80:1461–1466

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Liu J, Tian S, Knoll W (2005) Properties of polyaniline/carbon nanotube multilayer films in neutral solution and their application for stable low-potential detection of reduced beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Langmuir 21:5596–5599

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  144. Radhakrishnan S, Prakash S, Rao CRK, Vijayan M (2009) Organically soluble bifunctional polyaniline–magnetite composites for sensing and supercapacitor applications. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 12:A84

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  145. Lupu S, Lete C, Marin M, Totir N, Balaure PC (2009) Electrochemical sensors based on platinum electrodes modified with hybrid inorganic–organic coatings for determination of 4-nitrophenol and dopamine. Electrochim Acta 54:1932–1938

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  146. Lu X, Li Y, Du J, Zhou X, Xue Z, Liu X, Wang Z (2011) A novel nanocomposites sensor for epinephrine detection in the presence of uric acids and ascorbic acids. Electrochim Acta. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2011.06.056

  147. Zhang Z, Luo L, Chen H, Zhang M, Yang X, Yao S, Li J, Peng M (2011) A polypyrrole-imprinted electrochemical sensor based on nano-SnO2/multiwalled carbon nanotubes film modified carbon electrode for the determination of oleanolic acid. Electroanalysis 23:2446–2455

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  148. Shahrokhian S, Kamalzadeh Z, Saberi R-S (2011) Application of glassy carbon electrode modified with a bilayer of multiwalled carbon nanotube and polypyrrole doped with nitrazine yellow for voltammetric determination of naltrexone. Electroanalysis 23:2925–2934

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  149. Lin C-Y, Balamurugan A, Lai Y-H, Ho K-C (2010) A novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/iron phthalocyanine/multi-wall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite with high electrocatalytic activity for nitrite oxidation. Talanta 82:1905–1911

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Yin T, Wei W, Zeng J (2006) Selective detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid by use of glassy-carbon electrodes modified with both polyaniline film and multi-walled carbon nanotubes with incorporated beta-cyclodextrin. Anal Bioanal Chem 386:2087–2094

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  151. Kong B, Yin T, Liu X, Wei W (2007) Voltammetric determination of hydroquinone using β-cyclodextrin/poly(N-acetylaniline)/carbon nanotube composite modified glassy carbon electrode. Anal Lett 40:2141–2150

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  152. Satheesh Babu TG, Varadarajan D, Murugan G, Ramachandran T, Nair BG (2012) Gold nanoparticle–polypyrrole composite modified TiO2 nanotube array electrode for the amperometric sensing of ascorbic acid. J Appl Electrochem 42:427–434

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  153. Gopalan AI, Lee K-P, Manesh KM, Santhosh P, Kim JH (2006) Gold nanoparticles dispersed into poly(aminothiophenol) as a novel electrocatalyst—Fabrication of modified electrode and evaluation of electrocatalytic activities for dioxygen reduction. J Mol Catal A 256:335–345

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  154. Gopalan AI, Lee K-P, Manesh KM, Santhosh P, Kim JH, Kang JS (2007) Electrochemical determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid at a novel gold nanoparticles distributed poly(4-aminothiophenol) modified electrode. Talanta 71:1774–1781

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

C. Janáky gratefully acknowledges support of the European Union under FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IOF, grant number: 274046.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Csaba Visy.

Additional information

Published in the topical collection Amperometric Sensing with guest editors Renato Seeber, Fabio Terzi, and Chiara Zanardi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Janáky, C., Visy, C. Conducting polymer-based hybrid assemblies for electrochemical sensing: a materials science perspective. Anal Bioanal Chem 405, 3489–3511 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-6702-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-6702-y

Keywords

  • Amperometric sensing
  • Conducting polymer
  • Modified electrode
  • Composite
  • Electrodeposition
  • Sensor