Quantification of steroids and endocrine disrupting chemicals in rat ovaries by LC-MS/MS for reproductive toxicology assessment
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Reproductive function is controlled by a finely tuned balance of androgens and estrogens. Environmental toxicants, notably endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), appear to be involved in the disruption of hormonal balance in several studies. To further describe the effects of selected EDCs on steroid secretion in female rats, we aim to simultaneously investigate the EDC concentration and the sex hormone balance in the ovaries. Therefore, an effective method has been developed for the quantification of the sex steroid hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and estrone) and four endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, atrazine, and the active metabolites of methoxychlor and vinclozolin) in rat ovaries. The sample preparation procedure is based on the so-called “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” approach, and an analytical method was developed to quantify these compounds with low detection limits by liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer. This analytical method, applied to rat ovary samples following subacute EDC exposure, revealed some new findings for toxicological evaluation. In particular, we showed that EDCs with the same described in vitro mechanisms of action have different effects on the gonadal steroid balance. These results highlight the need to develop an integrative evaluation with the simultaneous measurement of EDCs and numerous steroids for good risk assessment.
KeywordsEndocrine disrupting chemicals Hormonal balance LC-MS/MS Steroids Toxicity
We would like to thank Franck Robidel and Anthony Lecomte for their help with animal care. We are grateful to Laure Wiest and Robert Baudot for their assistance using the mass spectrometry facilities. Last but not least, we thank Diana Z. and Andrew L. from American Journal Experts for their editorial assistance.
This project was supported by a grant from The French Environment Ministry and by Ph.D. training support from The National Institute of Industrial Environment and Risk (INERIS).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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