Online monitoring of coffee roasting by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS): towards a real-time process control for a consistent roast profile

Abstract

A real-time automated process control tool for coffee roasting is presented to consistently and accurately achieve a targeted roast degree. It is based on the online monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the off-gas of a drum roaster by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry at a high time (1 Hz) and mass resolution (5,500 m/Δm at full width at half-maximum) and high sensitivity (better than parts per billion by volume). Forty-two roasting experiments were performed with the drum roaster being operated either on a low, medium or high hot-air inlet temperature (= energy input) and the coffee (Arabica from Antigua, Guatemala) being roasted to low, medium or dark roast degrees. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated, for each one of the three hot-air inlet temperatures, the roast degree with a resolution of better than ±1 Colorette. The 3D space of the three first principal components was defined based on 23 mass spectral profiles of VOCs and their roast degree at the end point of roasting. This provided a very detailed picture of the evolution of the roasting process and allowed establishment of a predictive model that projects the online-monitored VOC profile of the roaster off-gas in real time onto the PCA space defined by the calibration process and, ultimately, to control the coffee roasting process so as to achieve a target roast degree and a consistent roasting.

Online monitoring of coffee roasting by real-time analysis of the roaster off-gas using PTR-ToF-MS. In a first phase, 42 calibration experiments were conducted at three different roasting temperatures and to three final roast degrees, to generate the 3D space defined by the three first principle components PC1, PC2 and PC3. Inverted triangles mark the dark roast degree, square medium and circle light, respectively. The hot-air inlet temperature is marked as follows: high (black), medium (grey), low (white). The different hot-air inlet temperatures and roast degrees are clearly separated. In a second phase, an online monitored PTR-ToF-MS spectrum of a roasting process was projected onto the 3D space, allowing following in real-time the roasting process and halting the roasting with a precision better that ± 1 Colorette roast degree.

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Acknowledgement

We acknowledge Bühler AG for financial support.

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Correspondence to Chahan Yeretzian.

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Published in the special issue Analytical Sciences in Switzerland with guest editors P. Dittrich, D. Günther, G. Hopfgartner, and R. Zenobi.

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Wieland, F., Gloess, A.N., Keller, M. et al. Online monitoring of coffee roasting by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS): towards a real-time process control for a consistent roast profile. Anal Bioanal Chem 402, 2531–2543 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5401-9

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Keywords

  • Process analysis
  • Foods
  • Beverages
  • Gas sensors
  • Quality assurance/control
  • Sampling
  • Agriculture