Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 397, Issue 1, pp 369–380 | Cite as

Volatile organic compounds in paper—an approach for identification of markers in aged books

  • Elvira M. Gaspar
  • José C. Santana
  • João F. Lopes
  • Marcos B. Diniz
Original Paper

Abstract

Volatile organic compounds emitted from historical books made from cotton/linen rag and wood pulp paper have been studied. Different profiles were obtained using different solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres to access the compounds involved in the decomposition reactions occurring in cotton/linen rag and wood pulp paper upon natural ageing and precocious/accelerated degradation. Contact headspace solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) was improved as a non-destructive methodology for the analysis of historical books. Potential markers of cellulose degradation—linear hydrocarbons, linear aldehydes, and 2-furfural—together with potential markers of cotton/linen rag paper (isopropylic esters) were identified. Chiral analysis (SPME-c-GC-TOF-MS) showed that only the enantiomer (S)-2-ethyl-1-hexanol is present as an emanation compound in both types of paper. Validation studies for a larger number of books are being done.

Figures 1–3

Portuguese old books made from cotton/linen rag paper.

Keywords

Paper Wood pulp paper Cotton/linen rag Cellulose Wood pulp VOC Paper ageing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors express their gratitude to Prof. H. Chaves das Neves for interest, help and criticism given to this work. EG expresses a deep gratitude to her friend Eng. Luiz de Aguiar Câmara for the unconditional willingness of giving some of his valuable historical books for this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elvira M. Gaspar
    • 1
  • José C. Santana
    • 1
  • João F. Lopes
    • 1
  • Marcos B. Diniz
    • 1
  1. 1.CQFB-Requimte, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCTUniversidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal

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