Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 397, Issue 1, pp 269–275 | Cite as

Determination of organic UV filters in water by stir bar sorptive extraction and direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry

  • Manuela Haunschmidt
  • Christian W. Klampfl
  • Wolfgang Buchberger
  • Robert Hertsens
Original Paper

Abstract

A screening method for analyzing environmental waters contaminated with UV filters using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was developed. To demonstrate the suitability of DART-MS a test set of seven organic UV filters, namely benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), 4-t-butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), homomethyl salicylate (HMS), 2-(ethylhexyl) salicylate (EHS), octocrylene (OC), and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), was defined. In the first step, standard solutions of the analytes prepared in methanol were investigated in order to determine optimum parameters for the DART-MS. Because of the very low concentrations of UV filters expected in environmental water samples, a pre-concentration step using stir bar sorptive extraction was performed. DART-MS allows the direct, simple and rapid semi-quantitative analysis of the analytes enriched on the surface of the polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bars. The optimized method provided calibration curves with correlation coefficients R > 0.959, repeatability from 5% (for 4-MBC) to 30% (for BM-DBM) relative standard deviation and limits of detection lower than 40 ng L−1 for all analytes. Finally, real lake water samples from locations with typical leisure activities were analyzed. Results obtained with the developed DART-MS method were cross-checked by confirmatory analysis using thermodesorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Thereby, it could be demonstrated that both analytical methods provide comparable concentrations for the UV filters in the lake water samples.

Figure

DART-MS measurement of UV filters enriched by stir bar sorptive extraction.

Keywords

Eusolex Sunscreen agents Water analysis DART mass spectrometry 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors gratefully acknowledge JEOL (Europe) BV, Zaventem, Belgium for providing the DART-AccuTOF.

References

  1. 1.
    Jeon HK, Chung Y, Ryu JC (2006) J Chromatogr A 1131:192–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kupper T, Plagellat C, Braendli RC, de Alencastro LF, Grandjean D, Tarradellas J (2006) Water Res 40:2603–2612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Giokas DL, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA, Lambropoulou DA (2005) J Chromatgr A 1077:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rodil R, Schrader S, Moeder M (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:4887–4894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moeder M, Lange F (2007) LC-GC Europe 20:97–103Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balmer ME, Buser HR, Müller MD, Poiger T (2005) Environ Sci Technol 39:953–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poiger T, Buser HR, Balmer ME, Bergqvist PA, Müller MD (2004) Chemosphere 55:951–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Giokas DL, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA (2004) J Chromatogr A 1026:289–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cuderman P, Heath E (2007) Anal Bioanal Chem 387:1343–1350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lambropoulou DA, Giokas DL, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA, Karayannis MI (2002) J Chromatogr A 967:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sakkas VA, Giokas DL, Lambropoulou DA, Albanis TA (2003) J Chromatogr A 1016:211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Negreira N, Rodríguez I, Ramil M, Rubí E, Cela R (2009) Anal Chim Acta 638:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Felix T, Hall BJ, Brodbelt JS (1998) Anal Chim Acta 371:195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kawaguchi M, Ito R, Endo N, Sakui N, Okanouchi N, Saito K, Sato N, Shiozaki T, Nakazawa H (2006) Anal Chim Acta 557:272–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rodil R, Moeder M (2008) J Chromatogr A 1179:81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giokas DL, Salvador A, Chisvert A (2007) Trends Anal Chem 26:360–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Peck AM (2006) Anal Bioanal Chem 386:907–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Díaz-Cruz MS, Llorca M, Barceló D (2008) Trends Anal Chem 27:873–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chisvert A, Pascual-Martí M-C, Salvador A (2001) Fresenius J Anal Chem 369:638–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salvador A, Chisvert A (2005) Anal Chim Acta 537:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Salvador A, Chisvert A (2005) Anal Chim Acta 537:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rodil R, Quintana JB, Lopez-Mahia P, Muniategui-Lorenzo S, Prada-Rodriguez D (2008) Anal Chem 80:1307–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodil R, Schrader S, Moeder M (2009) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:580–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cody RB, Laramée JA, Durst HD (2005) Anal Chem 77:2297–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zaborsky P (2006) Doctoral Thesis, Johannes-Kepler-University Linz (Austria)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuela Haunschmidt
    • 1
  • Christian W. Klampfl
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Buchberger
    • 1
  • Robert Hertsens
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Analytical ChemistryJohannes-Kepler-UniversityLinzAustria
  2. 2.JEOL (Europe) BVZaventemBelgium

Personalised recommendations