Simultaneous determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of nitrated and oxygenated PAHs found in air and soot particles
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An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric (UPLC-APCIToFMS) method for rapid analysis of twelve nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and nine oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) in particle samples has been developed. The extraction step using pressurized liquid extraction was optimized by experimental design methods and the concentrated extracts were analyzed without further clean-up. Matrix effects resulting in suppression or enhancement of the response during the ionization step were not observed. The suitability of the developed method is demonstrated by analysis of six different particle samples including standard reference materials, atmospheric particles collected by a high-volume sampler at an urban background site, and a soot sample from a burner. Results from these measurements showed clear differences between the different kinds of samples. Concentrations from reference materials are in good agreement with those from previous studies. Additionally a clear seasonal trend could be observed in atmospheric NPAH and OPAH concentrations found in real samples, with higher concentrations in winter.
KeywordsNitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Experimental design Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) Standard reference materials (SRM)
The authors wish to thank the Research Institute of Industrial Environment (IRENI) which is financed by the Communauté Urbaine de Dunkerque, the Nord-Pas de Calais Regional Council, the French Ministry of Education and Research, and European funds (FEDER). The authors are also grateful to Isabelle Fronval and Benoît Herbin for their technical support. Yuri Bedjanian (ICARE/CNRS, Orléans, France) is acknowledged for graciously supplying the soot combustion sample.
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