Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 397, Issue 2, pp 439–451 | Cite as

Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in human serum and milk standard reference materials

  • Jennifer M. Keller
  • Antonia M. Calafat
  • Kayoko Kato
  • Mark E. Ellefson
  • William K. Reagen
  • Mark Strynar
  • Steven O’Connell
  • Craig M. Butt
  • Scott A. Mabury
  • Jeff Small
  • Derek C. G. Muir
  • Stefan D. Leigh
  • Michele M. Schantz
Original Paper


Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that are homogeneous materials well characterized with values for specified properties, such as environmental contaminant concentrations. They can be used to validate measurement methods and are critical in improving data quality. Disagreements in perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations measured in environmental matrices during past interlaboratory comparisons emphasized the need for SRMs with values assigned for PFAAs. We performed a new interlaboratory comparison among six laboratories and provided, for the first time, value assignment of PFAAs in SRMs. Concentrations for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other PFAAs in two human serum and two human milk SRMs are reported. PFAA concentration measurements agreed for serum SRM 1957 using different analytical methods in six laboratories and for milk SRM 1954 in three laboratories. The interlaboratory relative standard deviation for PFOS in SRM 1957 was 7%, which is an improvement over past interlaboratory studies. Matrix interferences are discussed, as well as temporal trends and the percentage of branched vs. linear isomers. The concentrations in these SRMs are similar to the present-day average concentrations measured in human serum and milk, resulting in representative and useful control materials for PFAA human monitoring studies.


Perfluorinated contaminants Organic contaminants Reference materials Human samples Blood Intercomparison exercise 

Supplementary material

216_2009_3222_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (472 kb)
ESM(PDF 472 kb)


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Copyright information

© US Government 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer M. Keller
    • 1
  • Antonia M. Calafat
    • 2
  • Kayoko Kato
    • 2
  • Mark E. Ellefson
    • 3
  • William K. Reagen
    • 3
  • Mark Strynar
    • 4
  • Steven O’Connell
    • 1
  • Craig M. Butt
    • 5
  • Scott A. Mabury
    • 5
  • Jeff Small
    • 6
  • Derek C. G. Muir
    • 6
  • Stefan D. Leigh
    • 7
  • Michele M. Schantz
    • 8
  1. 1.Analytical Chemistry Division, Hollings Marine LaboratoryNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyCharlestonUSA
  2. 2.Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Environmental Laboratory3M CompanySt. PaulUSA
  4. 4.Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  5. 5.Department of ChemistryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Water Science and Technology DirectorateEnvironment CanadaBurlingtonCanada
  7. 7.Statistical Engineering DivisionNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  8. 8.Analytical Chemistry DivisionNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA

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