Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 396, Issue 1, pp 221–227 | Cite as

Ice chromatography: current progress and future developments

  • Tetsuo OkadaEmail author
  • Yuiko Tasaki


Ice chromatography, in which water-ice particles are employed as a chromatographic stationary phase, has proven an efficient technique for probing the solution/ice interface. The preparation of fine ice particles has allowed us to not only obtain higher-resolution separation but also investigate the molecular processes occurring on the ice surface in more detail. Chromatographic investigations have revealed that two or more hydrogen bonds are simultaneously formed between a solute and the dangling bonds on the ice surface when the solute gives measurable retention. Several compounds, including estrogens, amino acids, and acyclic polyethers, have been successfully separated by ice chromatography with a hexane-based mobile phase. In addition, this method effectively probes the surface melting of the ice stationary phase and the liquid phase that coexists with water ice at thermodynamic equilibrium. The thickness of the surface liquid layer and the size of the liquid phase that grows inside an ice particle have been evaluated. The perspectives of this method are also discussed.


Ice chromatographic separation of dyes in black ink


Water ice Liquid phase coexisting with ice Separation Interface Quasi-liquid layer 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

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