Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 394, Issue 6, pp 1585–1594 | Cite as

Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

Paper in Forefront

Abstract

A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, recoveries were higher than 75% in potable water with comparable results for surface water. Matrix effects due to reduced extraction yields in undiluted waste water were negligible for aspartame and neotame but considerable for the other compounds. The widespread distribution of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose in the aquatic environment could be proven. Concentrations in two influents of German sewage treatment plants (STPs) were up to 190 μg/L for cyclamate, about 40 μg/L for acesulfame and saccharin, and less than 1 μg/L for sucralose. Removal in the STPs was limited for acesulfame and sucralose and >94% for saccharin and cyclamate. The persistence of some artificial sweeteners during soil aquifer treatment was demonstrated and confirmed their environmental relevance. The use of sucralose and acesulfame as tracers for anthropogenic contamination is conceivable. In German surface waters, acesulfame was the predominant artificial sweetener with concentrations exceeding 2 μg/L. Other sweeteners were detected up to several hundred nanograms per liter in the order saccharin ≈ cyclamate > sucralose.

Figure

Some artificial sweeteners are excreted unchanged and in particular acesulfame is a perfect tracer for municipal waste water

Keywords

Artificial sweeteners Sucralose Acesulfame Surface water Waste water Soil aquifer treatment 

Supplementary material

216_2009_2881_MOESM1_ESM.doc (340 kb)
ESM(DOC 339 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Scheurer
    • 1
  • Heinz-J. Brauch
    • 1
  • Frank T. Lange
    • 1
  1. 1.Water Technology Center Karlsruhe (TZW)KarlsruheGermany

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