Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 392, Issue 1–2, pp 87–96 | Cite as

Development of a multipurpose ion source for LC-MS and GC-API MS

  • Ralf Schiewek
  • Matthias Lorenz
  • Ronald Giese
  • Klaus Brockmann
  • Thorsten Benter
  • Siegmar Gäb
  • Oliver J. Schmitz
Paper in Forefront


Over the past decade, multimode ion sources operating at atmospheric pressure (i.e., more than one ionization method is operative in the ion source enclosure) have received considerable interest. Simultaneous operation of different ionization methods targeting different compound classes within one analysis run has several advantages, including enhanced sample throughput and thus significant laboratory cost reductions. Potential drawbacks are enhanced ion suppression and other undesirable effects of the simultaneous operation of ionization methods. In this contribution we present an alternative approach—the development and characterization of a widely applicable, multipurpose ion source operating at atmospheric pressure. The optimized source geometry allows rapid changing from LC-API methods (ESI, APCI, APLI) to GC-API methods (APCI, APLI, DA-APLI) along with the appropriate coupling of chromatographic equipment required. In addition, true multimode operation of the source is demonstrated for LC-ESI/APLI and LC-APCI/APLI.


APLI APCI Photoionization Mass spectrometry Multimode ion source 



atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization


combination of APCI and APLI


atmospheric-pressure ionization


atmospheric-pressure laser ionization


atmospheric-pressure photoionization


capillary electrochromatography


dopant-assisted atmospheric-pressure laser ionization


electrospray ionization


combination of ESI and APCI


combination of ESI and APLI


Fourier transform–ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry


gas chromatography


high-pressure liquid chromatography


liquid chromatography


multipurpose atmospheric-pressure ionization source


time-of-flight mass spectrometry


vacuum ultraviolet



The authors are grateful to Bruker Daltonik (Bremen, Germany) for financial support, to RESTEK (Bad Homburg, Germany) for the HPLC column and to Dr. Rupert Simon (European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Methods, Geel, Belgium) for the PAH mixture 1.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf Schiewek
    • 1
  • Matthias Lorenz
    • 2
  • Ronald Giese
    • 2
  • Klaus Brockmann
    • 2
  • Thorsten Benter
    • 2
  • Siegmar Gäb
    • 1
  • Oliver J. Schmitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany
  2. 2.Department of Physical ChemistryUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany

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