Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 392, Issue 1–2, pp 87–96 | Cite as

Development of a multipurpose ion source for LC-MS and GC-API MS

  • Ralf Schiewek
  • Matthias Lorenz
  • Ronald Giese
  • Klaus Brockmann
  • Thorsten Benter
  • Siegmar Gäb
  • Oliver J. Schmitz
Paper in Forefront

Abstract

Over the past decade, multimode ion sources operating at atmospheric pressure (i.e., more than one ionization method is operative in the ion source enclosure) have received considerable interest. Simultaneous operation of different ionization methods targeting different compound classes within one analysis run has several advantages, including enhanced sample throughput and thus significant laboratory cost reductions. Potential drawbacks are enhanced ion suppression and other undesirable effects of the simultaneous operation of ionization methods. In this contribution we present an alternative approach—the development and characterization of a widely applicable, multipurpose ion source operating at atmospheric pressure. The optimized source geometry allows rapid changing from LC-API methods (ESI, APCI, APLI) to GC-API methods (APCI, APLI, DA-APLI) along with the appropriate coupling of chromatographic equipment required. In addition, true multimode operation of the source is demonstrated for LC-ESI/APLI and LC-APCI/APLI.

Keywords

APLI APCI Photoionization Mass spectrometry Multimode ion source 

Abbreviations

APCI

atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization

APCILI

combination of APCI and APLI

API

atmospheric-pressure ionization

APLI

atmospheric-pressure laser ionization

APPI

atmospheric-pressure photoionization

CEC

capillary electrochromatography

DA-APLI

dopant-assisted atmospheric-pressure laser ionization

ESI

electrospray ionization

ESI/APCI

combination of ESI and APCI

ESILI

combination of ESI and APLI

FT-ICR MS

Fourier transform–ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

GC

gas chromatography

HPLC

high-pressure liquid chromatography

LC

liquid chromatography

MPIS

multipurpose atmospheric-pressure ionization source

(TOF)MS

time-of-flight mass spectrometry

VUV

vacuum ultraviolet

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf Schiewek
    • 1
  • Matthias Lorenz
    • 2
  • Ronald Giese
    • 2
  • Klaus Brockmann
    • 2
  • Thorsten Benter
    • 2
  • Siegmar Gäb
    • 1
  • Oliver J. Schmitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany
  2. 2.Department of Physical ChemistryUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany

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