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Bioanalytical procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in blood

Abstract

Determination of drugs of abuse in blood is of great importance in clinical and forensic toxicology. This review describes procedures for detection of the following drugs of abuse and their metabolites in whole blood, plasma or serum: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol glucuronide, heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaethylene, other cocaine metabolites or pyrolysis products (norcocaine, norcocaethylene, norbenzoylecgonine, m-hydroxycocaine, p-hydroxycocaine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, p-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, ethyl ecgonine, ecgonine, anhydroecgonine methyl ester, anhydroecgonine ethyl ester, anhydroecgonine, noranhydroecgonine, N-hydroxynorcocaine, cocaine N-oxide, anhydroecgonine methyl ester N-oxide). Metabolites and degradation products which are recommended to be monitored for assessment in clinical or forensic toxicology are mentioned. Papers written in English between 2002 and the beginning of 2007 are reviewed. Analytical methods are assessed for their suitability in forensic toxicology, where special requirements have to be met. For many of the analytes sensitive immunological methods for screening are available. Screening and confirmation is mostly done by gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (MS) or liquid chromatography (LC)–MS(/MS) procedures. Basic information about the biosample assayed, internal standard, workup, GC or LC column and mobile phase, detection mode, and validation data for each procedure is summarized in two tables to facilitate the selection of a method suitable for a specific analytic problem.

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Abbreviations

AEME:

anhydroecgonine methyl ester

APCI:

atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

BZE:

benzoylecgonine

CI:

chemical ionization

CYP:

cytochrome P-450

CZE:

capillary zone electrophoresis

DAD:

diode array detection

EI:

electron ionization

EME:

ecgonine methyl ester

ESI:

electrospray ionization

GC:

gas chromatography

HFBA:

heptafluorobutyric anhydride

(S)-HFBPCl:

(S)-(-)-heptafluorobutyrylprolyl chloride

HPLC:

high-performance liquid chromatography

LC:

liquid chromatography

LIF:

laser-induced fluorescence

LLE:

liquid–liquid extraction

LOQ:

limit of quantification

LOD:

limit of detection

6-MAM:

6-monoacetylmorphine

MDA:

3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine

MDEA:

N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine

MDMA:

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

M3G:

morphine-3-glucuronide

M6G:

morphine-6-glucuronide

MRM:

multiple reaction monitoring

MS:

mass spectrometry

MS/MS:

tandem mass spectrometry

(R)-(-)-MTPCl:

(R)-(-)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride

NICI:

negative ion chemical ionization

OH-THC:

11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

PICI:

positive ion chemical ionization

SIM:

selected ion monitoring

SPE:

solid-phase extraction

THC:

Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

THC-COOgluc:

11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol glucuronide

THC-COOH:

11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

UPLC:

ultraperformance liquid chromatography

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Kraemer, T., Paul, L.D. Bioanalytical procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in blood . Anal Bioanal Chem 388, 1415–1435 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-007-1271-6

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Keywords

  • Drugs of abuse
  • Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
  • Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
  • Blood
  • Determination
  • Forensic toxicology