Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 385, Issue 4, pp 724–729 | Cite as

Application of a novel electrosynthesized polydopamine-imprinted film to the capacitive sensing of nicotine

  • Kai Liu
  • Wan-Zhi WeiEmail author
  • Jin-Xiang Zeng
  • Xiao-Ying Liu
  • Yan-Ping Gao
Original Paper


The application of novel electrosynthesized polydopamine (PDA)-imprinted film as a recognition element for the capacitive sensing of nicotine is reported. The PDA-imprinted film was electropolymerized directly on the gold electrode surface in the presence of nicotine without an additional self-assembled thiol sublayer. The compact PDA film has various functional groups that aid the imprinting procedure. Furthermore, the film shows good capacitive response since it is insulating in nature and ultrathin. The sensor’s linear response range for nicotine was between 1–25 μmol L−1, with a detection limit of 0.5 μmol L−1. The proposed molecularly imprinted polymer capacitive (MIPC) sensor exhibited good selectivity for nicotine. The reproducibility and repeatability of the MIPC senor were all found to be satisfactory. The results from sample analysis confirmed the applicability of the MIPC sensor to quantitative analysis.


Dopamine Molecularly imprinted polymer Electropolymerization Capacitive sensing Nicotine 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Doctorate Fund (No.20020532007).


  1. 1.
    Bakker E (2004) Anal Chem 76:3285–3298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Merkoci A, Alegret S (2002) Trends Anal Chem 21:717–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ye L, Haupt K (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 378:1887–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liang CD, Peng H, Nie LH, Yao SZ (2000) Fresenius J Anal Chem 367:551–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kobayashi T, Murawaki Y, Reddy PS, Abe A, Fujii N (2001) Anal Chim Acta 435:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lahav M, Kharitonov AB, Katz O, Kunitake T, Willner I (2001) Anal Chem 73: 720–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Colonna B, Echegoyen L (2001) Chem Commun 274:1104–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malitesta C, Losito I, Zambonin PG (1999) Anal Chem 71:1366–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Panayuk T, MirskyI VM, Piletsky SA, Wolfbeis OS (1999) Anal Chem 71:4609–4613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gong JL, Gong FC, Kuang Y, Zeng GM, Shen GL, Yu RQ (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 379:302–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sergeyeva TA, Piletsky SA, BrovkoI AA, Slinchenko EA, Sergeeva LM (1999) Analyst 124: 331–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yeh WM, Ho KC (2005) Anal Chim Acta 542:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Andrea P, Miroslav S, Silvia S, Stanislav M (2001) Sens Actuators B 76:286–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hutchins RS, Bachas LG (1995) Anal Chem 67:1654–1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blanco-López MC, Lobo-Castañón MJ, Miranda-Ordieres AJ, Tuñón-Blanco P (2004) Trends Anal Chem 23:36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wightman RM, Amatore C, Engstrom RC, Hale PD, Kristensen EW, Kubr WG, May LJ (1988) Neuroscience 25:513–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hawley MD, Tatawawadi SV, Piekarski S, Adams RN(1967) J Am Chem Soc 89:447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lane RF, Hubbard AT (1976) Anal Chem 48:1287–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ciszewski A, Milczarek G (1999) Anal Chem 71:1055–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    He H, Xie QJ, Yao SZ (2005) J Colloid Interf Sci 289:446–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jarvik ME (1991) Br J Addict 86:57–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yildiz D (2004) Toxicon 43:619–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gudet AZC, Buri P (1998) Pharm Sci 8:139–144Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nystrom L, Pettersson M, Rangemark C (2000) J Chromatogr B 742:215–221Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lu GH, Ralapati S (1997) Electrophoresis 19:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang YH, Yang MH, Wang H, Tang L, Shen GL, Yu RQ (2004) Anal Chim Acta 509:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tan YG, Yin J, Liang CD, Peng H, Nie LH, Yao SZ (2001) Bioelectrochemistry 53:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saraji M, Bagheri A (1998) Synth Met 98:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Berney H, West J, Haefele E, Alderman J, Lane W, Collins JK (2000) Sens Actuators B 68:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ho WO, Krause S, McNeil CJ, Pritchard JA, Armstrong RD, Athey D, Rawson K (1999) Anal Chem 71:1940–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Liu
    • 1
  • Wan-Zhi Wei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jin-Xiang Zeng
    • 1
  • Xiao-Ying Liu
    • 1
  • Yan-Ping Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and ChemometricsCollege of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations