Analytical approach for monitoring endocrine-disrupting compounds in urban waste water treatment plants
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The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in influent and effluent water samples from four waste water treatment plants located in Italy was studied. The estrogen-like activity of the water samples was measured using a chemiluminescent recombinant yeast assay which is based on genetically engineered yeast cells that express the human estrogen receptor. This receptor, once activated, elicits the expression of the reporter gene lac-Z and, consequently, the production of β-galactosidase, which is then measured by chemiluminescence. To control and minimize sample matrix effects, an external control based on a modified yeast strain stably expressing β-galactosidase was developed and also used in the assay. Rapid and sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays were also developed and validated for the quantification of 17β-estradiol, estrone, and estriol in waste water samples. Results from both methods were compared with a reference high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC ESI-MS-MS) method developed for the quantification of natural estrogens. The recombinant yeast assay revealed a significant estrogenic activity in the influent samples, ranging from 80 to 400 pmol/L 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ), which was reduced by 70–95 % in the effluent samples. The yeast assay also showed a systematic 20–30 % overestimation of estrogenic activity relative to the HPLC ESI-MS-MS method, suggesting the presence of other compounds in the samples with estrogenic activity. The chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays showed the presence of estrogens in the influent samples (mean concentrations: 350–450 pmol/L for estrone, 5–100 pmol/L for 17β-estradiol, 25–300 pmol/L for estriol), with significantly lower concentrations detected in the respective effluent samples. The waste water treatment was able to reduce natural estrogen concentrations by 40–95 %, although a high variability was observed. The enzyme immunoassay data correlated well with data obtained by the HPLC ESI-MS-MS method. Although the recombinant yeast assay represents a useful tool for a first-level screening of estrogenic activity due to its simplicity and high analytical throughput, sample matrix effects observed in waste water of industrial origin were found to strongly affect the yeast cells response, even when properly corrected for using the external control, thereby limiting its use to urban waste water. Its integration with chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays would improve its performance by reducing false negative results, thereby enabling its use in extensive studies monitoring for the presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in urban treatment plant effluents.
KeywordsChemiluminescence Endocrine disrupting compounds Enzyme immunoassay Estrogens Recombinant yeast assay Waste water treatment plants
This work was supported by a grant of MIUR (Italian Ministry of University and Research) and by a grant of ISPELS (Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro). We thank Hera S.P.A (Bologna), AMPS S.p.A (Parma), Comune di Scandicci (Florence), and ACEA S.p.A. (Rome) for providing the WWTP influent and effluent samples.
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