Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 385, Issue 4, pp 692–699 | Cite as

Strategies for examination of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid precursor protein isoforms

  • Jillian R. A. Newton
  • David Parkinson
  • Malcolm R. ClenchEmail author
Original Paper


We describe a proteomics procedure using bioinformatics, immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, in-gel digestion, LC–MS, MALDI–MS, and MS–MS for isolation and identification of amyloid precursor protein (APP) isoforms APP695, APP751, and APP770. Retinoic acid-induced Ntera 2 cell line, derived from a human teratocarcinoma cells, was the in-vitro source of APP. Initial isolation of whole APP was performed by immunoprecipitation, using AB10, a monoclonal antibody raised to amino acids 1–17 of the β-amyloid peptide sequence, which is present in all three alpha secretase-cleaved isoforms of interest. The next stage was separation of whole APP into its isoform components by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Because of low APP concentrations, detection by the usual staining methods, for example Sypro Ruby, able to detect low picomole concentrations, did not enable visualisation of the isoforms. Western analysis, however, enabled primary detection of APP, because of the inherent sensitivity of antibodies raised to specific isoform regions. This initial visualization acted as a template for excision of isoforms from 2D gels, which were then subjected to peptide mass mapping. Initial theoretical digestion of each isoform revealed the presence of specific peptides, which were then used as “tags” for isoform detection.


Amyloid precursor protein Isoforms Proteomics Mass spectrometry 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jillian R. A. Newton
    • 1
  • David Parkinson
    • 1
  • Malcolm R. Clench
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Biomedical Research CentreSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK

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