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From fundamentals to applications: recent developments in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry

  • Suzanne J. Bos
  • Suze M. van Leeuwen
  • Uwe Karst
Review

Abstract

Only five years after the first publication on atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), this technique has evolved rapidly as a very useful complement to established ionization techniques for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). This is reflected in a rapidly increasing number of publications in this field. On the one hand, thorough studies into the photoionization mechanism have provided deep insights into the roles and influences of the solvent, the dopant and other additives. On the other hand, a large number of new and attractive applications have recently been introduced. New instrumental developments have resulted in combined APPI/ESI (PAESI) and APPI/APCI sources and a microfabricated APPI source. In this review, the most important developments within the field are summarized, focusing in particular on the applications of the technique.

Keywords

Photoionization Atmospheric pressure photoionization Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry Photoionization mechanism 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO, The Hague, The Netherlands) is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne J. Bos
    • 1
  • Suze M. van Leeuwen
    • 1
  • Uwe Karst
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Analysis Group and MESA+ Institute for NanotechnologyUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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