In this paper, a novel concept is presented for automatic microsampling and continuous monitoring of metal ions in soils with minimum disturbance of the sampling site. It involves a hollow-fiber microdialyser that is implanted in the soil body as a miniaturized sensing device. The idea behind microdialysis in this application is to mimic the function of a passive sampler to predict the actual, rather than potential, mobility and bioavailability of metal traces. Although almost quantitative dialysis recoveries were obtained for lead (≥ 98%) from aqueous model solutions with sufficiently long capillaries (l ≥30 mm, 200 μm i.d.) at perfusion rates of 2.0 μL min−1, the resistance of an inert soil matrix was found to reduce metal uptake by 30%. Preliminary investigation of the potential of the microdialysis analyser for risk assessment of soil pollution, and for metal partitioning studies, were performed by implanting the dedicated probe in a laboratory-made soil column and hyphenating it with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), so that minute, well-defined volumes of clean microdialysates were injected on-line into the graphite furnace. A noteworthy feature of the implanted microdialysis-based device is the capability to follow the kinetics of metal release under simulated natural scenarios or anthropogenic actions. An ancillary flow set-up was arranged in such a way that a continuous flow of leaching solution — mild extractant (10−2 mol L−1 CaCl2), acidic solution (10−3 mol L−1 HNO3), or chelating agent (10−4 or 10−2 mol L−1 EDTA) — was maintained through the soil body, while the concentration trends of inorganic (un-bound) metal species at the soil-liquid interface could be monitored at near real-time. Hence, relevant qualitative and quantitative information about the various mobile fractions is obtained, and metal-soil phase associations can also be elucidated. Finally, stimulus-response schemes adapted from neurochemical applications and pharmacokinetic studies are to be extended to soil research as an alternative means of local monitoring of extraction processes after induction of a chemical change in the outer boundary of the permselective dialysis membrane.
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Manuel Miró expresses his appreciation to “Sa Nostra, Caixa de Balears” for grant allocation. The technical assistance of Thomas Thele and Gerhard Steinbrecher is greatly acknowledged. The authors also are indebted to Dr. Wenkel from Axel Semrau GmbH & Co. for the loan of a CMA/102 microdialysis pump.
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Miró, M., Jimoh, M. & Frenzel, W. A novel dynamic approach for automatic microsampling and continuous monitoring of metal ion release from soils exploiting a dedicated flow-through microdialyser. Anal Bioanal Chem 382, 396–404 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-004-3003-5
- Metal ions
- Continuous monitoring
- Automated sampling