Heterocyclic acetals in Madeira wines
The maturation of Madeira wines usually involves exposure to relatively high temperatures which affect the aroma and flavour composition leading to the formation of the typical and characteristic bouquet of these wines. The formation of heterocyclic acetals (1,3-dioxanes and 1,3-dioxolanes) was investigated in order to determine levels and for possible use as indicators of wine age. The results show a linear correlation of the investigated acetals with wine age but suggest that the acetalization reaction is not particularly affected by the drastic oxidative conditions observed during maturation.
KeywordsAcetals 1,3-Dioxanes 1,3-Dioxolanes Wine-ageing Madeira wine GC–MS
We gratefully acknowledge the Instituto do Vinho da Madeira and the Madeira Wine Company for the supply of the wine samples used in this study.
- 1.Belitz HD, Grosch W (1999) Food Chemistry, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 3.Williams PJ, Strauss CR (1978) J Inst Brew 84:144–147Google Scholar
- 4.Müller C, Kneper R, Webb A (1978) Am J Enol Vitic 29:207–212Google Scholar
- 5.Simpson RF (1980) J Sci Food Agric 31:214–222Google Scholar
- 6.Akness G, Albriktsen P, Juvik P (1965) Acta Chem Scand 19:920–930Google Scholar