Psychopharmacology

, Volume 235, Issue 4, pp 909–933 | Cite as

Alcohol, psychomotor-stimulants and behaviour: methodological considerations in preclinical models of early-life stress

Review
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Abstract

Background

In order to assess the risk associated with early-life stress, there has been an increase in the amount of preclinical studies investigating early-life stress. There are many challenges associated with investigating early-life stress in animal models and ensuring that such models are appropriate and clinically relevant.

Objectives

The purpose of this review is to highlight the methodological considerations in the design of preclinical studies investigating the effects of early-life stress on alcohol and psychomotor-stimulant intake and behaviour.

Methods

The protocols employed for exploring early-life stress were investigated and summarised. Experimental variables include animals, stress models, and endpoints employed.

Results

The findings in this paper suggest that there is little consistency among these studies and so the interpretation of these results may not be as clinically relevant as previously thought.

Conclusion

The standardisation of these simple stress procedures means that results will be more comparable between studies and that results generated will give us a more robust understanding of what can and may be happening in the human and veterinary clinic.

Keywords

Early-life stress Animal models Alcohol Psychomotor stimulants Behaviour 

Abbreviations

SD

Sprague-Dawley

L-E

Long-Evans

L-H

Lister Hooded

F-H

Fawn-Hooded

Cont

Continuous

NS

Not specified

PND

Postnatal day

M

Male

F

Female

CPP

Conditioned place preference

AMP

Amphetamine

MA

Methamphetamine

2-BC

2 Bottle-choice

MDMA

Methylenedioxymethamnphetamine

CVS

Chronic variable stress

AA

Alko alcohol

ANA

Alko non-alcohol

OSST

Operant strategy-shifting task

SI

Social interaction

EPM

Elevated plus maze

OFT

Open field test

FST

Forced swim test

LDB

Light/dark box

LA

Locomotor activity

MWM

Morris water maze

cPRIDE

Consummatory partial reinforcement on incentive downshift effect

AST

Attention set-shifting task

ASR

Acoustic startle response

CMS

Chronic-mild-unpredictable stress

TMT

Trimethylthiazoline

SUS

Swim-test susceptible

RES

Swim-test resistant

NOR

Novel object recognition

PCMS

Predictable chronic mild stress

NSFT

Novelty-suppressed feeding test

RHA

Roman high avoidance

RLA

Roman low avoidance

PPI

Prepulse inhibition

SP

Sucrose/saccharin preference

FC

Fear conditioning

RI

Resident-intruder

Interm

Intermittent

EE

Environmental enrichment

MS

Maternal separation

CORT

Corticosterone

F2

Second generation

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTufts UniversityMedfordUSA

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