, Volume 235, Issue 4, pp 947–958 | Cite as

A caffeine-maltodextrin mouth rinse counters mental fatigue

  • Jeroen Van Cutsem
  • Kevin De Pauw
  • Samuele Marcora
  • Romain Meeusen
  • Bart RoelandsEmail author
Original Investigation



Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity that has negative implications on many aspects in daily life. Caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion have been shown to be able to reduce these negative effects of mental fatigue. Intake of these substances might however be less desirable in some situations (e.g., restricted caloric intake, Ramadan). Rinsing caffeine or glucose within the mouth has already been shown to improve exercise performance. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effect of frequent caffeine-maltodextrin (CAF-MALT) mouth rinsing on mental fatigue induced by a prolonged cognitive task.


Ten males (age 23 ± 2 years, physical activity 7.3 ± 4.3 h/week, low CAF users) performed two trials. Participants first completed a Flanker task (3 min), then performed a 90-min mentally fatiguing task (Stroop task), followed by another Flanker task. Before the start and after each 12.5% of the Stroop task (eight blocks), subjects received a CAF-MALT mouth rinse (MR: 0.3 g/25 ml CAF: 1.6g/25 ml MALT) or placebo (PLAC: 25 ml artificial saliva).


Self-reported mental fatigue was lower in MR (p = 0.017) compared to PLAC. Normalized accuracy (accuracy first block = 100%) was higher in the last block of the Stroop in MR (p = 0.032) compared to PLAC. P2 amplitude in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreased over time only in PLAC (p = 0.017).


Frequent mouth rinsing during a prolonged and demanding cognitive task reduces mental fatigue compared to mouth rinsing with artificial saliva.


Cognitive fatigue Mouth rinse Electroencephalography Cognitive performance 



BR is a postdoctoral fellow of the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders (FWO).

Compliance with ethical standards

Each subject gave written informed consent prior to the study. Experimental protocol and procedures were approved by the Research Council of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Physiology Research GroupVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise SciencesUniversity of Kent at MedwayKentUK

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