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Psychopharmacology

, Volume 233, Issue 9, pp 1715–1723 | Cite as

Haloperidol and Risperidone at high concentrations activate an in vitro inflammatory response of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by induction of apoptosis and modification of cytokine levels

  • Ivo Emílio da Cruz Jung
  • Alencar Kolinski Machado
  • Ivana Beatrice Mânica da CruzEmail author
  • Fernanda Barbisan
  • Verônica Farina Azzolin
  • Thiago Duarte
  • Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte
  • Pedro Antônio Schmidt do Prado-Lima
  • Guilherme Vargas Bochi
  • Gustavo Scola
  • Rafael Noal Moresco
Original Investigation

Abstract

Antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol and risperidone, are used in long-term treatment of psychiatric patients and thus increase the risk of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions. Available evidence suggests that these drugs have pro-inflammatory effect, which contributes to the establishment of endocrine disturbances. However, results yielded by extant studies are inconsistent. Therefore, in this work, we tested the in vitro effects of different high concentrations of haloperidol and risperidone on the activation of isolated macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell line). The results indicated that macrophages were activated by both drugs. In addition, the activation involved an increase in nitric oxide levels and apoptosis events by modulation of caspases 8 and 3 levels and a decrease of the Bcl-2/BAX gene expression ratio. Cells treated with haloperidol and risperidone also presented higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) and low levels of IL-6 anti-inflammatory cytokine in a dose-dependent manner. Despite the limitation of cell line studies based solely on macrophages cells, we suggest that antipsychotic drugs could potentially exacerbate inflammatory processes in peripheral tissues (blood and fat). The continued activation of macrophages could contribute to the development of obesity and other endocrine disturbances caused by the use of antipsychotic drugs.

Keywords

Antipsychotic drugs Apoptosis Inflammation Cytokines Obesity Endocrine disturbances 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivo Emílio da Cruz Jung
    • 1
  • Alencar Kolinski Machado
    • 1
  • Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fernanda Barbisan
    • 1
  • Verônica Farina Azzolin
    • 1
  • Thiago Duarte
    • 1
  • Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte
    • 2
  • Pedro Antônio Schmidt do Prado-Lima
    • 3
  • Guilherme Vargas Bochi
    • 4
  • Gustavo Scola
    • 5
  • Rafael Noal Moresco
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em FarmacologiaUniversidade Federal de Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Universidade Luterana do BrasilSanta MariaBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto do CérebroPontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências FarmacêuticasUniversidade Federal de Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  5. 5.Departament of PsychiatryToronto UniversityTorontoCanada

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