High impulsivity predicting vulnerability to cocaine addiction in rats: some relationship with novelty preference but not novelty reactivity, anxiety or stress
- 1.3k Downloads
Impulsivity is a vulnerability marker for drug addiction in which other behavioural traits such as anxiety and novelty seeking (‘sensation seeking’) are also widely present. However, inter-relationships between impulsivity, novelty seeking and anxiety traits are poorly understood.
The objective of this paper was to investigate the contribution of novelty seeking and anxiety traits to the expression of behavioural impulsivity in rats.
Rats were screened on the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) for spontaneously high impulsivity (SHI) and low impulsivity (SLI) and subsequently tested for novelty reactivity and preference, assessed by open-field locomotor activity (OF), novelty place preference (NPP), and novel object recognition (OR). Anxiety was assessed on the elevated plus maze (EPM) both prior to and following the administration of the anxiolytic drug diazepam, and by blood corticosterone levels following forced novelty exposure. Finally, the effects of diazepam on impulsivity and visual attention were assessed in SHI and SLI rats.
SHI rats were significantly faster to enter an open arm on the EPM and exhibited preference for novelty in the OR and NPP tests, unlike SLI rats. However, there was no dimensional relationship between impulsivity and either novelty-seeking behaviour, anxiety levels, OF activity or novelty-induced changes in blood corticosterone levels. By contrast, diazepam (0.3–3 mg/kg), whilst not significantly increasing or decreasing impulsivity in SHI and SLI rats, did reduce the contrast in impulsivity between these two groups of animals.
This investigation indicates that behavioural impulsivity in rats on the 5-CSRTT, which predicts vulnerability for cocaine addiction, is distinct from anxiety, novelty reactivity and novelty-induced stress responses, and thus has relevance for the aetiology of drug addiction.
KeywordsEndophenotype Five-choice serial reaction time task Novelty seeking Elevated plus maze Object recognition Novelty place preference Diazepam
This study was funded by the Wellcome Trust (089589/z/09/z) and MRC (G0401068, G0701500) within the Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute at Cambridge University and by the European Community’s Sixth Framework Programme (‘Imagen’ LSHM-CT-2007-037286). This paper reflects only the authors’ views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. M.M was supported by a Jose Castillejo Fellowship and a grant from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaión of Spain (PSI2009-08626).
- Belin D, Berson N, Balado E, Piazza PV, Deroche-Gamonet V (2011) High-novelty-preference rats are predisposed to compulsive cocaine self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology 36:569–579Google Scholar
- Cardinal RN, Aitken MRF (2001) Whisker, version 3.0, computer software. http://www.whiskercontrol.com
- Dalley JW, Fryer TD, Brichard L, Robinson ES, Theobald DE, Laane K, Pena Y, Murphy ER, Shah Y, Probst K, Abakumova I, Aigbirhio FI, Richards HK, Hong Y, Baron JC, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2007) Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement. Science 315:1267–1270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Deroche-Gamonet V, Belin D, Piazza PV (2004) Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat. Science 305:1014–1017Google Scholar
- Ersche K, Turton AJ, Pradhan S, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW (2010) Drug addiction endophenotypes: impulsive versus sensation-seeking personality traits. Biol Psychiatry, in pressGoogle Scholar
- File SE, Lippa AS, Beer B, Lippa MT (2004) Animal tests of anxiety. Curr Protoc Neurosci Chapter 8: Unit 8 3Google Scholar
- Gray JA (1981) A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H.J. Eysenck (Ed.) A model for personality: 246–277Google Scholar
- Moreno M, Cardona D, Gomez MJ, Sanchez-Santed F, Tobena A, Fernandez-Teruel A, Campa L, Sunol C, Escarabajal MD, Torres C, Flores P (2010) Impulsivity characterization in the Roman high- and low-avoidance rat strains: behavioral and neurochemical differences. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1198–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nigg JT, Wong MM, Martel MM, Jester JM, Puttler LI, Glass JM, Adams KM, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA (2006) Poor response inhibition as a predictor of problem drinking and illicit drug use in adolescents at risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:468–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar